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The Early Industrial and Transportation Revolution Chapter 14.

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Presentation on theme: "The Early Industrial and Transportation Revolution Chapter 14."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Early Industrial and Transportation Revolution Chapter 14

2 1.Population growth 1800 = 5.5 million to 33 million by 1861 13 states to 33 states by 1861 Expansion of cities 2.Flow of Immigration – 1830s to 1860s Why? Potato famine and European problem Irish German 48ers Hated by Nativists 3. Transformation of American Industry Industrial Revolution – why? American System Sectionalism Industrial pioneers

3 Westward Movement ßAmericans marched quickly toward west ßvery hard w/ disease & loneliness ßFrontier people were individualistic, superstitious & ill-informed ßWestward movement molded environment ßtobacco exhausted land ßKentucky blue grass thrived

4 Ecological Imperialism ßAm. Fur trappers practiced the rendezvous system Met w/ traders in St. Louis and Rocky Mountains to trade furs for goods=virtual extinction of beavers, bison etc.) ßLed to conservation movement- Yellowstone Park 1872

5 5.3 million Population Growth from 1620 to 1860

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10 City growth Westward expansion Growth of cities and states by 1850

11 The March of the Millions ßHigh birthrate accounted for population growth ßPopulation doubling every 25 years ßNear 1850s, millions of Irish, German came ßBeginning in 1830, immigration in the US soared

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14 Irish Immigration ßIrish Potato Famine 1845-1849 ßMain ports of entry – New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Boston ßIrish were too poor to move inland and farm so they stayed in the cities ßBoston did not particularly like the Irish – catholic, illiterate, poor ßNo Irish need apply! NINA posted at factory gates ßAncient Order of Hibernians ßBenevolent society to help Irish ßSpawned Molly Maguires (miners union) ßGradually improved and became active politically ß NYs Tammany Hall, Irish political machine

15 German Immigration ßMost Germans came due to crop failures ßGermans better off than Irish, came west, many to Wisconsin ßA few were political refugees from collapse of democratic revolutions in 1848 ßGerman contributions include Kentucky rifle, Christmas tree, kindergarten, and abolitionists ßSome Americans were suspicious because they tried to preserve language, culture and lived in separate communities, and drank beer

16 Sources of Immigration, 1820-40

17 Sources of Immigration, 1840-60

18 Settlements of Immigrants Irish in Northeastern cities: New York and Boston Germans would settle in Midwest

19 Early Nativism ßAmerican nativists feared 1840s & 1850s invasion of immigrants ßTook jobs, Roman Catholicism grew ßCatholics built their own schools, were #1 denomination by 1850 ß1849: Nativists form Order of the Star- Spangled Banner, developed into Know- Nothing party ßWanted immigration restrictions ßNativists occasionally violent, burned Boston convent (1834) ßPhiladelphia Irish fought back, 13 killed in several days of fighting (1844)

20 A shift from goods made by hand to factory and mass production Technological innovations brought production from farmhouse to factories Invented in Britain in 1750; smuggled to U.S. Beginning of US Factory System US slow to embrace factory system (WHY?) Scarce labor Little capital Superiority of British factories

21 HPromote nationalism was internal improvements to unite the US. Transportation system of roads, canals, steamships and rivers. 1800 to 1850 roads, canals and rivers first forms of transportation 1860, the railroad is added american system HProvide economic growth Americans buying American goods American self-sufficiency. Protective tariff (allows US factories to grow) 2 nd Bank of the United States H3 Sections working together to build the country Henry Clay, Congressmen from Kentucky John C. Calhoun, US Senator from South Carolina

22 Economy Leader __________ Role of Government NORTHEAST Business and ManufacturingBusiness and Manufacturing Daniel Webster ____________Daniel Webster ____________ Wanted TariffsWanted Tariffs Backed internal improvementsBacked internal improvements Wanted end to cheap public landWanted end to cheap public land Increasingly nationalisticIncreasingly nationalistic Against Slavery and believed the U.S. Govt. must abolish it.Against Slavery and believed the U.S. Govt. must abolish it.

23 SOUTH Cotton growingCotton growing John C. CalhounJohn C. Calhoun_____________ Opposed tariffs and government spending on American SystemOpposed tariffs and government spending on American System Increasingly supportive of states rightsIncreasingly supportive of states rights Pro-slavery and opposed any steps of the U.S. Govt. to try and abolish it.Pro-slavery and opposed any steps of the U.S. Govt. to try and abolish it. Economy Leader __________ Role of Government

24 WEST Frontier agricultureFrontier agriculture Henry ClayHenry Clay_____________ Supported internal improvementsSupported internal improvements Wanted cheap landWanted cheap land Loyal to the U.S. Govt.Loyal to the U.S. Govt. Against slavery but some supported letting the people decide the slavery issueAgainst slavery but some supported letting the people decide the slavery issue Economy Leader __________ Role of Government

25 H Population shift because of westward expansion the West demanded transportation. The Land Act of 1820, gave the West its wish by authorizing a buyer to purchase 80 acres of land at a minimum of $1.25 an acre in cash H Erie Canal started in 1817 and completed in 1825 NY Governor DeWitt Clinton built the Erie Canal Connected New York City from Hudson River with the Great Lakes and the West Clintons Big Ditch--------Other canals follow H Navigable rivers and the steamboat the first steamboat on western waters was in 1811.

26 Erie Canal System

27 Principal Canals in 1840

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30 Highways HBad roads made transportation highly unreliable H The National Road begun in 1811 and completed by 1832 Connected Maryland to Illinois. Built by US government

31 Cumberland (National Road), 1811

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33 Conestoga Covered Wagons Conestoga Trail, 1820s

34 Help unite the country as well as improve the economy and the infant industry. Because of the British blockade during the War of 1812, it was essential for internal transportation improvements.

35 The Railroad Revolution,1850s H1850 to 1860, RR proved most significant development toward national economy HAmericans demanded transcontinental railroad to California. Completed by 1869.

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37 Pioneer Railroad Promoters H1800 to 1850: Roads, canals, navigable rivers with steamboats were the main modes of transportation. H1850 to 1860, RR proved most significant development toward national economy HCompetition between Railroads and Canals HObstacles opposition from canal backers danger of fire poor brakes difference in track gauge meant changing trains

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40 Effects of the Transportation Revolution H1860-61, Pony Express connected East- West HTelegraph instantly sent messages across US HAttraction of many large capital investments and encouraged risk taking in the US economy HPeople moved faster and country expanded Unifying spirit among fellow country men A need for a transcontinental railroad that connected east to west

41 Telegraph revolutionized communication Would replace the Pony Express by 1861

42 Trails

43 Built first textile mill in 1793 in Pawtucket, Rhode Island. Born in England on June 9, 1768 and worked in British factories. Slater came to US to make his fortune in the textile industry. Slatersville Mill was the largest and most modern industrial cotton mill of its day "Father of the American Factory System." Samuel Slater was the "Father of the American Factory System."

44 Early Textile Loom

45 The Lowell Mills HAmericans beat the British at their own game, made better factories HFrancis C Lowell (a British traitor) came over here to build British factories met up with Boston mechanic, Paul Moody Together they improved the mill and invented a power loom that revolutionized textile manufacturing

46 The Lowell System Lowell, Massachusetts, 1832 HYoung New England farm girls HSupervised on and off the job HWorked 6 days a week, 13 hours a day HEscorted to church on Sunday

47 Women & the Economy H1850: 10% of white women working for pay outside home Vast majority of working women were single Left paying jobs upon marriage HCult of domesticity Cultural idea that glorifies homemaker HEmpowers married women Increased power & independence of women in home led to decline in family size

48 Workers & Wage Slaves HWith industrial revolution, large impersonal factories surrounded by slums full of wage slaves developed HLong hours, low wages, unsanitary conditions, lack of heat, etc. Labor unions illegal H1820: 1/2 of industrial workers were children under 10

49 Workers & Wage Slaves H1820s & 1830s: right to vote for laborers Loyalty to Democratic party led to improved conditions Fought for 10-hour day, higher wages, better conditions H1830s & 1840s: Dozens of strikes for higher wages or 10-hour day 1837 depression hurt union membership HCommonwealth v. Hunt Supreme Court ruled unions not illegal conspiracies as long as they were peaceful

50 1830s, Industrialization grew throughout the North… Southern cotton shipped to Northern textile mills was a good working relationship.

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53 Resourcefulness & Experimentation Americans were willing to try anything. Americans were willing to try anything. They were first copiers, then innovators. They were first copiers, then innovators. Americans were willing to try anything. Americans were willing to try anything. They were first copiers, then innovators. They were first copiers, then innovators. 1800 41 patents were approved. 1860 4,357 1860 4,357 1800 41 patents were approved. 1860 4,357 1860 4,357

54 Eli Whitneys cotton gin revolutionized the cotton industry. He is also noted for the concept of mass production and interchangeable parts by creating dyes for pistols and rifles. Very important early pioneer in Americas industrial revolution. Cotton Production The invention which changed the South, cotton and slavery.

55 Whitney Ends the Fiber Famine HCotton gin invented in 1793 50 times more effective than hand picking HRaising cotton more profitable South needs slavery more than ever for King Cotton HNew England factories flourish with Southern cotton

56 H 1807, Fulton's Clermont, was the first commercially successful and reliable steamboat. Steam boat would revolutionize water travel. H The steamboat was often the only mechanical means of river travel and freight transportation from 1808 through 1930. H 1807, Fulton's Clermont, was the first commercially successful and reliable steamboat. Steam boat would revolutionize water travel. H The steamboat was often the only mechanical means of river travel and freight transportation from 1808 through 1930.

57 John Deere & the Steel Plow

58 Cyrus McCormick & the Mechanical Reaper

59 Samuel F. B. Morse 1840 – Telegraph WHAT GOD HATH WROUGHT

60 Cyrus Field & the Transatlantic Cable, 1858

61 Elias Howe & Isaac Singer 1840s Sewing Machine Elias Howe & Isaac Singer 1840s Sewing Machine Perfected by Singer Gave boost to northern industry Became foundation for ready-made clothing industry Led many women into factories

62 From left to right: Eli Whitney (cotton gin, interchangeable parts), Robert Fulton (steam boat), Thomas Edison (light bulb), Cyrus McCormick (reaper), Richard Hoe (automatic printing press)


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