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Chapter 9: The Confederation and the Constitution 1776-1790 Eric Camacho Prepared for Mrs. Abend.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9: The Confederation and the Constitution 1776-1790 Eric Camacho Prepared for Mrs. Abend."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 9: The Confederation and the Constitution Eric Camacho Prepared for Mrs. Abend

2 Introduction American Rev.- accelerated evolution Exodus of about 80,000 loyalist removed conservative ballast a. Weakened upper class b. Patriots elite emerge c. more egalitarian ideas

3 The Pursuit of Equality All men are created equal-Dec. of Independence Fight for separation of church and state Challenge against slavery- reducing power Discriminatory laws remained both in the North and South Idealism of Founding Fathers fell to political expediency No Women Rights- until civic virtue led to Republican Motherhood- giving educational rights to women

4 Constitution Making in the states 1776-Continental Congress-Draft new constitution colonies states + republicanism= authority by the people Process of drafting and ratification of Constitution originated in Massachusetts 1. convention draft constitution 2. people ratify constitution and it is adopted 3. Modification by Constitutional convention

5 Constitution Making in the states cont. Similar constitutions led to the creation of a federal charter Written constitution meant a fundamental law Legislature (most democratic branch) had sweeping powers Influence felt in relocating of state capitals

6 Economic Crosscurrents Economic Democracy expressed political democracy with confiscating and dividing land US was cut off from English imports and forced into own manufacture British Navigation laws caused more damage to the economy after independence New commercial options- trade freely with foreign nations Empress of China 1784 trade of ginseng (valuable weed)

7 Economic Crosscurrents cont Downside- demoralized extravagance, speculation, profiteering, and inflation Economic and social atmosphere unhealthy rich class-profiteers 2.once-wealthy people were left destitute 3.distaste for taxes 4.disrespect for government. and law maker

8 A Shaky Start Toward Union United through government/ constitution, rich political inheritance and powerful leaders

9 Creating a Confederation Second Continental Congress- conference of ambassadors Needed a constitution, but had control of military and foreign policy 1776-Articles of Confederation were written Conflict over western lands by 6 states including Pennsylvania and Maryland Congress pledged to dispose of vast areas for the common benefit

10 The Articles of Confederation Americas First Constitution Articles of Confederation- loose confederation, 13 independent. States no executive branch Each state had one vote Weak Congress- couldnt enforce its tax-collection program, couldnt command or protect itself Demand of federal government with states united Articles of Confederation outlined the general powers of the constitution (evolutionary steps)

11 Landmarks in Land Laws Old Northwest-northwest of the Ohio River, east of the Mississippi River, and south of the Great Lakes Ordinance of land should be sold and proceedings used to help pay off the national debt Northwest ordinance- governing of the Old Northwest Areas under control of federal government. If area had 6 thousand inhabitants area would be added as state

12 The World's Ugly Duckling Troubled foreign relations-Britain refused to send a minister, no commercial treaty or retreat of navigation. Laws English remained in America because trade and failure of the American states to honor the Treaty of Parris (1783) in regard to debts and Loyalist Citizens demanded restrictions on British imports but the congress was far to weak

13 The World's Ugly Duckling cont. Spanish took control of area north of the Gulf of Mexico French demanded repayment of war loans The US could not provide protection for its Mediterranean commerce

14 The Horrid Specter of Anarchy 1780s- system for raising money breaking apart, states refuse to pay, complains, public debt rise, and nations credit vanishing Individual states- battles over land, low paper currency Shays Rebellion veteran debtor farmers demanded paper money, lighten taxes, and suspend property takeovers Massachusetts suppressed the rebellion with a small army

15 Shays Rebellion: illustration Shays Rebellion demonstrates how Massachusetts government was able to maintain law and suppress the rebellion. Thereby setting an example for the other states

16 The Horrid Specter of Anarchy cont Stronger central government would be needed to establish base States produced paper currency and the economy increased Critics in 1787 demanded the Articles of Confederation to be improved possibly by a new constitution

17 A Convention of Demigods Issue-Control of Commerce- led to a constitutional convention at Annapolis by 1786 Results- Alexander Hamilton- suggested having a convention to reform the Articles of Confederation next year. for the sole and express purpose of revising-Congress

18 A Convention of Demigods Cont Select group of propertied men represented each state except Rhode island 55 emissaries from twelve states met in Philadelphia statehouse (Independence hall) with privacy set by guards According to Jefferson the participants were demigods

19 A Convention of Demigods Cont Representatives- George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton and more most of the fiery revolutionary leaders were absent

20 Patriots in Philadelphia delegates were a conservative-young, wealthy, and nationalist Attempt to stabilize revolutionary idealism

21 Hammering Out a bundle of Compromises Delegates purpose was to overthrow the existing government in a peaceful manner Virginia the large-state plan- constitution framework a house of congress based on population New Jersey the small- state plan equal representatives each state

22 Hammering Out a bundle of Compromises Cont. Great Compromise- larger states rep. by population in the house of rep. and smaller states equal rep in the Senate. Each state would have two senators

23 Hammering Out a bundle of Compromises Cont. President-executive power- appointments with domestic offices, veto, wage war (congress declares war) Electing the president by electoral college

24 Safeguards for Conservatism Economically- demand for money and protection of private property Three branches and with checks and balances-triple-headed monster-critics Charter- democratic elements and republic ideals in government. based on the consent of the governed and powers limited No members of the convention were completely satisfied but they finally compromised and adopted the constitution


26 The Clash of Federalists and Anti- federalists Approval of the constitution would happen during specially elected conventions Anti-federalist opposed the constitution The lower class saw the constitution as a plot by the upper class to steal power back from the common folk

27 The Clash of Federalists and Anti-federalists cont Federalist had power, influence, press, and wealth on their side Anti-federalist argued that the constitution was created by aristocrats and therefore the constitution was antidemocratic

28 The Great Debate in the States Ratifying conventions- candidates elected on the basis of their pledges for or against the Constitution 4 more small states accepted constitution Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire, agreed to the constitution securing ratification

29 The Great Debate in the States Cont. Except, Virginia, New York, North Carolina, and Rhode Island agreed June 21, Constitution officially adopted

30 The Four Laggard States The Union was going to be formed with the constitution In order to get more people to support the constitution John Jay and James Madison wrote propaganda essays in The Federalist New York finally gave in realizing the need for union North Carolina and Rhode Island adjourned without inspection until the constitution was up and running is that they both took up the constitution

31 A Conservative Triumph The conservative minority had triumphed Militant minority of conservatives peaceful revolution that replaced the articles of the confederacy with the constitution

32 A Conservative Triumph Cont. Federalist were convinced that by setting the government. in a steady course the economy and political stability would be established Constitution- self-rule in a self-limiting system of checks and balances-liberty and order

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