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Chapter 9: The Confederation and the Constitution

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1 Chapter 9: The Confederation and the Constitution
Eric Camacho Prepared for Mrs. Abend

2 Introduction American Rev.- accelerated evolution
Exodus of about 80,000 loyalist removed conservative ballast a. Weakened upper class b. Patriots elite emerge c. more egalitarian ideas

3 The Pursuit of Equality
“All men are created equal”-Dec. of Independence Fight for separation of church and state Challenge against slavery- reducing power Discriminatory laws remained both in the North and South Idealism of Founding Fathers fell to political expediency No Women Rights- until civic virtue led to Republican Motherhood- giving educational rights to women 1.a. men and women want to be called Mr.. and Mrs.. b. Employers called boss not master c. servitude against democratic ideals 2.a. church de-anglicized and re-formed as Protestant Episcopal Church 3. a Philadelphia Quakers founded World’s first antislavery society b continental congress calls for complete abolition of the slave trade c. some states abolished slavery or emancipated the slaves for example: Emancipated slace could be barred from buying property, holding certain jobs, and educating their children 5James Madison once said “Great as the evil [ of slavery] is a dismemberment of the union would be worse. ” 6. Civic Virtue- the notion that democracy depended on the unselfish commitment of each citizen to the public good. 7.Republican Motherhood- selfless devotion to republic Educational opportunities for women

4 Constitution Making in the states
1776-Continental Congress-Draft new constitution colonies states + republicanism= authority by the people Process of drafting and ratification of Constitution originated in Massachusetts 1. convention draft constitution 2. people ratify constitution and it is adopted 3. Modification by Constitutional convention

5 Constitution Making in the states cont.
Similar constitutions led to the creation of a federal charter Written constitution meant a fundamental law Legislature (most democratic branch) had sweeping powers Influence felt in relocating of state capitals

6 Economic Crosscurrents
Economic Democracy expressed political democracy with confiscating and dividing land US was cut off from English imports and forced into own manufacture British Navigation laws caused more damage to the economy after independence New commercial options- trade freely with foreign nations “ Empress of China” 1784 trade of ginseng (valuable weed)

7 Economic Crosscurrents cont
Downside- demoralized extravagance, speculation, profiteering, and inflation Economic and social atmosphere unhealthy rich class-profiteers 2.once-wealthy people were left destitute 3.distaste for taxes 4.disrespect for government. and law maker

8 A Shaky Start Toward Union
United through government/ constitution, rich political inheritance and powerful leaders

9 Creating a Confederation
Second Continental Congress-conference of ambassadors Needed a constitution, but had control of military and foreign policy 1776-Articles of Confederation were written Conflict over western lands by 6 states including Pennsylvania and Maryland Congress pledged to dispose of vast areas for the “common benefit”

10 The Articles of Confederation America’s First Constitution
Articles of Confederation- loose confederation, 13 independent. States no executive branch Each state had one vote Weak Congress- couldn’t enforce its tax-collection program, couldn’t command or protect itself Demand of federal government with states united Articles of Confederation outlined the general powers of the constitution (evolutionary steps)

11 Landmarks in Land Laws Old Northwest-northwest of the Ohio River, east of the Mississippi River, and south of the Great Lakes Ordinance of land should be sold and proceedings used to help pay off the national debt 1787- Northwest ordinance- governing of the Old Northwest Areas under control of federal government. If area had 6 thousand inhabitants area would be added as state

12 The World's Ugly Duckling
Troubled foreign relations-Britain refused to send a minister, no commercial treaty or retreat of navigation. Laws English remained in America because trade and failure of the American states to honor the Treaty of Parris (1783) in regard to debts and Loyalist Citizens demanded restrictions on British imports but the congress was far to weak

13 The World's Ugly Duckling cont.
Spanish took control of area north of the Gulf of Mexico French demanded repayment of war loans The US could not provide protection for its Mediterranean commerce

14 The Horrid Specter of Anarchy
1780’s- system for raising money breaking apart, states refuse to pay, complains, public debt rise, and nation’s credit vanishing Individual states- battles over land, low paper currency Shay’s Rebellion veteran debtor farmers demanded paper money, lighten taxes, and suspend property takeovers Massachusetts suppressed the rebellion with a small army

15 Shays Rebellion: illustration
Shays Rebellion demonstrates how Massachusetts government was able to maintain law and suppress the rebellion. Thereby setting an example for the other states

16 The Horrid Specter of Anarchy cont
Stronger central government would be needed to establish base States produced paper currency and the economy increased Critics in 1787 demanded the Articles of Confederation to be improved possibly by a new constitution

17 A Convention of “ Demigods”
Issue-Control of Commerce- led to a constitutional convention at Annapolis by 1786 Results- Alexander Hamilton- suggested having a convention to reform the Articles of Confederation next year. “for the sole and express purpose of revising”-Congress

18 A Convention of “ Demigods” Cont
Select group of propertied men represented each state except Rhode island 55 emissaries from twelve states met in Philadelphia statehouse (Independence hall) with privacy set by guards According to Jefferson the participants were “demigods”

19 A Convention of “ Demigods” Cont
Representatives- George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton and more most of the fiery revolutionary leaders were absent

20 Patriots in Philadelphia
delegates were a conservative-young, wealthy, and nationalist Attempt to stabilize revolutionary idealism

21 Hammering Out a bundle of Compromises
Delegates purpose was to overthrow the existing government in a peaceful manner Virginia “ the large-state plan”- constitution framework a house of congress based on population New Jersey “ the small- state plan” equal representatives each state

22 Hammering Out a bundle of Compromises Cont.
Great Compromise- larger states rep. by population in the house of rep. and smaller states equal rep in the Senate. Each state would have two senators

23 Hammering Out a bundle of Compromises Cont.
President-executive power- appointments with domestic offices, veto, wage war (congress declares war) Electing the president by electoral college

24 Safeguards for Conservatism
Economically- demand for money and protection of private property Three branches and with checks and balances- “triple-headed monster”-critics Charter- democratic elements and republic ideals in government. based on the consent of the governed and powers limited No members of the convention were completely satisfied but they finally compromised and adopted the constitution


26 The Clash of Federalists and Anti-federalists
Approval of the constitution would happen during specially elected conventions Anti-federalist opposed the constitution The lower class saw the constitution as a plot by the upper class to steal power back from the common folk

27 The Clash of Federalists and Anti-federalists cont
Federalist had power, influence, press, and wealth on their side Anti-federalist argued that the constitution was created by aristocrats and therefore the constitution was antidemocratic

28 The Great Debate in the States
Ratifying conventions- candidates elected on the basis of their pledges for or against the Constitution 4 more small states accepted constitution Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire, agreed to the constitution securing ratification

29 The Great Debate in the States Cont.
Except, Virginia, New York, North Carolina, and Rhode Island agreed June 21, Constitution officially adopted

30 The Four Laggard States
The Union was going to be formed with the constitution In order to get more people to support the constitution John Jay and James Madison wrote propaganda essays in “The Federalist” New York finally gave in realizing the need for union North Carolina and Rhode Island adjourned without inspection until the constitution was up and running is that they both took up the constitution

31 A Conservative Triumph
The conservative minority had triumphed Militant minority of conservatives peaceful revolution that replaced the articles of the confederacy with the constitution

32 A Conservative Triumph Cont.
Federalist were convinced that by setting the government. in a steady course the economy and political stability would be established Constitution- self-rule in a self-limiting system of checks and balances-liberty and order

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