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States of Consciousness Levels of Consciousness Levels of Consciousness We know that various levels exists beyond the conscious level. Mere-exposure.

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Presentation on theme: "States of Consciousness Levels of Consciousness Levels of Consciousness We know that various levels exists beyond the conscious level. Mere-exposure."— Presentation transcript:

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2 States of Consciousness

3 Levels of Consciousness Levels of Consciousness We know that various levels exists beyond the conscious level. Mere-exposure effectMere-exposure effect PrimingPriming Blind sightBlind sight Taiwanese Letter Example

4 When we are awake we are… In a state of Consciousness Our awareness of ourselves and our surroundings *includes feelings, sensations, ideas, perceptions

5 The central theory of conscious behavior can be found in:

6 Conscious Subconscious Unconscious

7 Why Do We Daydream? They can help us prepare for future eventsThey can help us prepare for future events They can nourish our social development Can substitute for impulsive behavior

8 Sleep and Dreams You spend one third of your whole life sleeping.You spend one third of your whole life sleeping. Why do we sleep?Why do we sleep? Why do we dream?Why do we dream? Like all creatures, we have a biological clock, which governs our daily function. This process is called circadian rhythms.Like all creatures, we have a biological clock, which governs our daily function. This process is called circadian rhythms. These rhythms include a sequence of bodily changes, such as a change in body temperature, blood pressure, and sleepiness and wakefulness, that occurs every 24 hours.These rhythms include a sequence of bodily changes, such as a change in body temperature, blood pressure, and sleepiness and wakefulness, that occurs every 24 hours.

9 Circadian Rhythm Our 24 hour biological clockOur 24 hour biological clock The rhythm of activity and inactivity lasting approximately one dayThe rhythm of activity and inactivity lasting approximately one day Our body temperature and awareness changes throughout the dayOur body temperature and awareness changes throughout the day It is best to take a test or study during your circadian peaksIt is best to take a test or study during your circadian peaks How can the circadian rhythm help explain jet lag?

10 The Stages of Sleep Researchers have discovered that we sleep in stages. Researchers have discovered that we sleep in stages. These stages are defined according to brain wave patterns – measured by electroencephalograph (EEG).These stages are defined according to brain wave patterns – measured by electroencephalograph (EEG). Brain waves (electrical activity) are cyclical. That is, they vary according to whether we are awake, relaxed, or sleeping.Brain waves (electrical activity) are cyclical. That is, they vary according to whether we are awake, relaxed, or sleeping. There are four different kinds of brain waves – beta, alpha, theta, and delta.There are four different kinds of brain waves – beta, alpha, theta, and delta. Awake brain = beta waves (short and quick)Awake brain = beta waves (short and quick) Begin to relax and get drowsy, the brain waves slow and change to alpha waves (a little slower than beta)Begin to relax and get drowsy, the brain waves slow and change to alpha waves (a little slower than beta) After this relaxed state, sleep follows in five distinct stages.After this relaxed state, sleep follows in five distinct stages.

11 Sleep Stages There are 5 identified stages of sleep. There are 5 identified stages of sleep. It takes about minutes to pass through the 5 stages. It takes about minutes to pass through the 5 stages. The brains waves will change according to the sleep stage you are in. The brains waves will change according to the sleep stage you are in. The first four stages and know as NREM sleep.. The first four stages and know as NREM sleep.. The fifth stage is called REM sleep. The fifth stage is called REM sleep.

12 Stage One This is experienced as falling to This is experienced as falling to sleep and is a transition stage sleep and is a transition stage between wake and sleep. between wake and sleep. It usually lasts between 1 and 5 minutes and occupies approximately 2-5 % of a normal night of sleep. It usually lasts between 1 and 5 minutes and occupies approximately 2-5 % of a normal night of sleep. eyes begin to roll slightly. eyes begin to roll slightly. consists mostly of theta waves (high amplitude, low frequency (slow)) consists mostly of theta waves (high amplitude, low frequency (slow)) brief periods of alpha waves, similar to those present while awake brief periods of alpha waves, similar to those present while awake

13 Stage Two This follows Stage 1 sleep and is the "baseline" of sleep. This follows Stage 1 sleep and is the "baseline" of sleep. This stage is part of the 90 minute cycle and occupies approximately 45-60% of sleep. This stage is part of the 90 minute cycle and occupies approximately 45-60% of sleep.

14 Stage Three & Four Stages three and four are "Delta" sleep or "slow wave" sleep and may last minutes. Stages three and four are "Delta" sleep or "slow wave" sleep and may last minutes. It is called "slow wave" sleep because brain activity slows down dramatically from the "theta" rhythm of Stage 2 to a much slower rhythm called "delta" and the height or amplitude of the waves increases dramatically. It is called "slow wave" sleep because brain activity slows down dramatically from the "theta" rhythm of Stage 2 to a much slower rhythm called "delta" and the height or amplitude of the waves increases dramatically.

15 Stage Three and Four (continued) Contrary to popular belief, it is delta sleep that is the "deepest" stage of sleep (not REM) and the most restorative. Contrary to popular belief, it is delta sleep that is the "deepest" stage of sleep (not REM) and the most restorative. It is delta sleep that a sleep-deprived person's brain craves the first and foremost. It is delta sleep that a sleep-deprived person's brain craves the first and foremost. In children, delta sleep can occupy up to 40% of all sleep time and this is what makes children unawake able In children, delta sleep can occupy up to 40% of all sleep time and this is what makes children unawake able or "dead asleep" during or "dead asleep" during most of the night. most of the night.

16 Stage Five: REM SLEEP REM: Rapid Eye Movement REM: Rapid Eye Movement This is a very active stage of sleep. This is a very active stage of sleep. Composes % of a normal nights sleep. Composes % of a normal nights sleep. Breathing, heart rate and brain wave activity quicken. Breathing, heart rate and brain wave activity quicken. Vivid Dreams can occur. Vivid Dreams can occur. From REM, you go back to Stage 2 From REM, you go back to Stage 2

17 REM Body is essentially paralyzed during REM. Body is essentially paralyzed during REM. Genitals become aroused. Erections and clitoral engorgement. Genitals become aroused. Erections and clitoral engorgement. Morning Erections are from final REM stage. Morning Erections are from final REM stage. A typical 25 year old man has an erection during half of his sleep A 65 year old- one quarter

18 Brain Waves and Sleep Stages

19 Sleep stages Awake Hours of sleep REM Stages in a Typical Nights Sleep

20 What if you didnt sleep? In 1964, a research study was conducted under the supervision of a doctor a 17 year old boy stayed awake for almost 11 days straight. In 1964, a research study was conducted under the supervision of a doctor a 17 year old boy stayed awake for almost 11 days straight. Result : he was extremely irritable, could not focus his eyes, had speech difficulties, memory lapses, accident prone and depressed immune system. Result : he was extremely irritable, could not focus his eyes, had speech difficulties, memory lapses, accident prone and depressed immune system. Person would eventually die if they didnt sleep. Person would eventually die if they didnt sleep.

21 Sleep Disorders

22 Insomnia Recurring problems in falling or staying asleep Recurring problems in falling or staying asleep Not your once in a while (I have a big test tomorrow) having trouble getting to sleep episodes Not your once in a while (I have a big test tomorrow) having trouble getting to sleep episodes Insomnia is not defined by the number of hours you sleep every night Insomnia is not defined by the number of hours you sleep every night Primary versus Secondary insomnia Primary versus Secondary insomnia

23 Narcolepsy Characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks Characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks Lapses directly into REM sleep (usually during times of stress or joy)

24 Sleep Apnea A sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and consequent momentary reawakenings A sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and consequent momentary reawakenings

25 Night Terrors A sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified. A sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified. Occur in Stage 4, not REM, and are not often remembered. Occur in Stage 4, not REM, and are not often remembered.

26 Sleepwalking (Somnambulism) Sleepwalking is a sleep disorder effecting an estimated 10 percent of all humans at least once in their lives. Sleepwalking is a sleep disorder effecting an estimated 10 percent of all humans at least once in their lives. Sleep walking most often occurs during deep non- REM sleep (stage 3 or stage 4 sleep) early in the night. Sleep walking most often occurs during deep non- REM sleep (stage 3 or stage 4 sleep) early in the night.

27 Sleepwalking Symptoms and Features: Ambulation (walking or moving about) that occurs during sleep. The onset typically occurs in pre-pubertal children. Ambulation (walking or moving about) that occurs during sleep. The onset typically occurs in pre-pubertal children. difficulty in arousing the patient during an episode difficulty in arousing the patient during an episode amnesia following an episode amnesia following an episode Fatigue (which is not the same as drowsiness), Fatigue (which is not the same as drowsiness), stress and anxiety stress and anxiety Young children who have the deepest and lengthiest Stage 4 sleep, are most likely to experience both night terrors and sleepwalking. As we get older, Stage 4 sleep diminishes – so do night terrors and sleepwalking.

28 Sleepwalking The sleep walking activity may include simply sitting up and appearing awake while actually asleep, getting up and walking around, or complex activities such as moving furniture, going to the bathroom, dressing and undressing, and similar activities. Some people even drive a car while actually asleep. The episode can be very brief (a few seconds or minutes) or can last for 30 minutes or longer. The sleep walking activity may include simply sitting up and appearing awake while actually asleep, getting up and walking around, or complex activities such as moving furniture, going to the bathroom, dressing and undressing, and similar activities. Some people even drive a car while actually asleep. The episode can be very brief (a few seconds or minutes) or can last for 30 minutes or longer. One common misconception is that a sleep walker should not be awakened. It is not dangerous to awaken a sleep walker, although it is common for the person to be confused or disoriented for a short time on awakening. Another misconception is that a person cannot be injured when sleep walking. Actually, injuries caused by such things as tripping and loss of balance are common for sleep walkers. One common misconception is that a sleep walker should not be awakened. It is not dangerous to awaken a sleep walker, although it is common for the person to be confused or disoriented for a short time on awakening. Another misconception is that a person cannot be injured when sleep walking. Actually, injuries caused by such things as tripping and loss of balance are common for sleep walkers.

29 Why Dream? Dreaming, primarily occurs during REM sleep. When someone is awakened during REM sleep, they usually report/remember a dream. Dreaming, primarily occurs during REM sleep. When someone is awakened during REM sleep, they usually report/remember a dream. The average adult dreams for about 1 ½ hours every night. The average adult dreams for about 1 ½ hours every night. Modern psychology suggests that dreams are simply a reflection of the brains aroused state during active sleep. Modern psychology suggests that dreams are simply a reflection of the brains aroused state during active sleep.

30 Why Dream? During REM sleep, the cerebral cortex is active, but it is largely shut off from sensory input. During REM sleep, the cerebral cortex is active, but it is largely shut off from sensory input. The brains activity then is not constrained by the demands of external reality. The brains activity then is not constrained by the demands of external reality. Memory images become more prominent than during waking life – for they do have to compete with the insistent here and now provided by the senses. Memory images become more prominent than during waking life – for they do have to compete with the insistent here and now provided by the senses. The recent experiences of the day are usually evoked, and they then arouse a number of previous memories and intermingle them. The recent experiences of the day are usually evoked, and they then arouse a number of previous memories and intermingle them.

31 Freuds wish-fulfillment Theory Dreams are the key to understanding our inner conflicts Dreams are the key to understanding our inner conflicts Ideas and thoughts that are hidden in our unconscious Ideas and thoughts that are hidden in our unconscious Manifest and latent content Manifest and latent content

32 Freuds theory of dreams Freud began with the assumption that at the root of every dream lies an attempt at wish fulfillment. Freud began with the assumption that at the root of every dream lies an attempt at wish fulfillment. While awake, a wish is not always acted upon because considerations of both reality (the ego) and morality (the super ego) While awake, a wish is not always acted upon because considerations of both reality (the ego) and morality (the super ego) But during sleep, these restraints are drastically weakened and the wish then leads to immediate thoughts and images of gratification. But during sleep, these restraints are drastically weakened and the wish then leads to immediate thoughts and images of gratification. The underlying wish touches upon some forbidden impulses/desires that might be associated with anxiety. The underlying wish touches upon some forbidden impulses/desires that might be associated with anxiety. Therefore, the wish is censored (cannot be expressed directly) – only allowed to surface within a dream in symbolic disguise. Therefore, the wish is censored (cannot be expressed directly) – only allowed to surface within a dream in symbolic disguise. The dreamer never experiences the latent (underlying) dream that is the hidden wish Instead, experiences the manifest (obvious) dream emerging after the defense mechanisms have done their work. The dreamer never experiences the latent (underlying) dream that is the hidden wish Instead, experiences the manifest (obvious) dream emerging after the defense mechanisms have done their work. Latent Content: the underlying meaning of a dream. Manifest Content: the remembered storyline of a dream. This latent-manifest dreaming represents a compromise between forbidden urges (id) and repressive forces (super ego) that hold them down. This latent-manifest dreaming represents a compromise between forbidden urges (id) and repressive forces (super ego) that hold them down. Essentially, according to Freud, dreaming is a symbolic process. True forbidden wishes are veiled in symbolic disguises. Essentially, according to Freud, dreaming is a symbolic process. True forbidden wishes are veiled in symbolic disguises.

33 Information-Processing Theory Dreams act to sort out and understand the memories that you experience that day Dreams act to sort out and understand the memories that you experience that day REM sleep does increase after stressful events REM sleep does increase after stressful events

34 Physiological Function Theories Activation-Synthesis Theory: during the night our brainstem releases random neural activity, dreams may be a way to make sense of that activity. during the night our brainstem releases random neural activity, dreams may be a way to make sense of that activity.

35 REM Rebound The tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation The tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation What will happen if you dont get a good nights sleep for a week, and then sleep for 10 hours? What will happen if you dont get a good nights sleep for a week, and then sleep for 10 hours? You will dream a lot!!!

36 Hypnosis

37 Hypnosis Altered state of consciousness? Altered state of consciousness? Posthypnotic suggestion Posthypnotic suggestion Posthypnotic amnesia Posthypnotic amnesia

38 Hypnotic Theories Role Theory Hypnosis is NOT an altered state of consciousness. Hypnosis is NOT an altered state of consciousness. Different people have various state of hypnotic suggestibility. Different people have various state of hypnotic suggestibility. A social phenomenon where people want to believe. A social phenomenon where people want to believe. Work better on people with richer fantasy lives. Work better on people with richer fantasy lives. State Theory Hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness. Hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness. Dramatic health benefits Dramatic health benefits It works for pain best. It works for pain best.

39 Dissociation Theory Theory by Ernest Hilgard. Theory by Ernest Hilgard. We voluntarily divide our consciousness up. We voluntarily divide our consciousness up. Ice Water Experiment. Ice Water Experiment. We have a hidden observer, a level of us that is always aware. We have a hidden observer, a level of us that is always aware.

40 DRUGS

41 Drugs and Consciousness Psychoactive Drug Psychoactive Drug a chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood a chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood Physical Dependence Physical Dependence physiological need for a drug physiological need for a drug marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms Psychological Dependence Psychological Dependence a psychological need to use a drug a psychological need to use a drug for example, to relieve negative emotions for example, to relieve negative emotions

42 Psychoactive Drugs Depressants Downers drugs that reduce neural activity slow body functions *Alcohol (Involved in up to 60% of all crimes; the worst drug from a macro perspective out there) *barbiturates and opiates Stimulants Uppers drugs that excite neural activity speed up body functions caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, cocaine, ecstasy Hallucinogens psychedelic (mind-manifesting) drugs that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input LSD Barbiturates Tranquilizers drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment Opiates opium and its derivatives (morphine and heroin) opiates depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety Amphetamines drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes

43 Psychoactive Drugs


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