6Why Do We Daydream? They can help us prepare for future events They can nourish our social developmentCan substitute for impulsive behavior
7Sleep and Dreams You spend one third of your whole life sleeping. Why do we sleep?Why do we dream?Like all creatures, we have a biological clock, which governs our daily function. This process is called circadian rhythms.These rhythms include a sequence of bodily changes, such as a change in body temperature, blood pressure, and sleepiness and wakefulness, that occurs every 24 hours.
8Circadian Rhythm Our 24 hour biological clock The rhythm of activity and inactivity lasting approximately one dayOur body temperature and awareness changes throughout the dayIt is best to take a test or study during your circadian peaksHow can the circadian rhythm help explain jet lag?
9The Stages of SleepResearchers have discovered that we sleep in stages.These stages are defined according to brain wave patterns – measured by electroencephalograph (EEG).Brain waves (electrical activity) are cyclical. That is, they vary according to whether we are awake, relaxed, or sleeping.There are four different kinds of brain waves – beta, alpha, theta, and delta.Awake brain = beta waves (short and quick)Begin to relax and get drowsy, the brain waves slow and change to alpha waves (a little slower than beta)After this relaxed state, sleep follows in five distinct stages.
10Sleep Stages There are 5 identified stages of sleep. It takes about minutes to pass through the 5 stages.The brain’s waves will change according to the sleep stage you are in.The first four stages and know as NREM sleep..The fifth stage is called REM sleep.
11Stage One This is experienced as falling to sleep and is a transition stagebetween wake and sleep.It usually lasts between 1 and 5 minutes and occupies approximately 2-5 % of a normal night of sleep.eyes begin to roll slightly.consists mostly of theta waves (high amplitude, low frequency (slow))brief periods of alpha waves, similar to those present while awake
12Stage Two This follows Stage 1 sleep and is the "baseline" of sleep. This stage is part of the 90 minute cycle and occupies approximately 45-60% of sleep.
13Stage Three & FourStages three and four are "Delta" sleep or "slow wave" sleep and may last minutes.It is called "slow wave" sleep because brain activity slows down dramatically from the "theta" rhythm of Stage 2 to a much slower rhythm called "delta" and the height or amplitude of the waves increases dramatically.
14Stage Three and Four (continued) Contrary to popular belief, it is delta sleep that is the "deepest" stage of sleep (not REM) and the most restorative.It is delta sleep that a sleep-deprived person's brain craves the first and foremost.In children, delta sleep can occupy up to 40% of all sleep time and this is what makes children unawake ableor "dead asleep" duringmost of the night.
15Stage Five: REM SLEEP REM: Rapid Eye Movement This is a very active stage of sleep.Composes % of a normal nights sleep.Breathing, heart rate and brain wave activity quicken.Vivid Dreams can occur.From REM, you go back to Stage 2
16REM A typical 25 year old man has an erection during half of his sleep Body is essentially paralyzed during REM.Genitals become aroused. Erections and clitoral engorgement.“Morning Erections” are from final REM stage.A typical 25 year old man has an erection during half of his sleepA 65 year old- one quarter
18Stages in a Typical Night’s Sleep 1234567SleepstagesAwakeHours of sleepREM
19What if you didn’t sleep? In 1964, a research study was conducted under the supervision of a doctor a 17 year old boy stayed awake for almost 11 days straight.Result: he was extremely irritable, could not focus his eyes, had speech difficulties, memory lapses, accident prone and depressed immune system.Person would eventually die if they didn’t sleep.
21Insomnia Recurring problems in falling or staying asleep Not your once in a while (I have a big test tomorrow) having trouble getting to sleep episodesInsomnia is not defined by the number of hours you sleep every nightPrimary versus Secondary insomnia
22Narcolepsy Characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks Lapses directly into REM sleep (usually during times of stress or joy)
23Sleep ApneaA sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and consequent momentary reawakenings
24Night TerrorsA sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified.Occur in Stage 4, not REM, and are not often remembered.
25Sleepwalking (Somnambulism) Sleepwalking is a sleep disorder effecting an estimated 10 percent of all humans at least once in their lives.Sleep walking most often occurs during deep non-REM sleep (stage 3 or stage 4 sleep) early in the night.
26Sleepwalking Symptoms and Features: Ambulation (walking or moving about) that occurs during sleep. The onset typically occurs in pre-pubertal children.difficulty in arousing the patient during an episodeamnesia following an episodeFatigue (which is not the same as drowsiness), stress and anxiety Young children who have the deepest and lengthiest Stage 4 sleep, are most likely to experience both night terrors and sleepwalking. As we get older, Stage 4 sleep diminishes – so do night terrors and sleepwalking.
27SleepwalkingThe sleep walking activity may include simply sitting up and appearing awake while actually asleep, getting up and walking around, or complex activities such as moving furniture, going to the bathroom, dressing and undressing, and similar activities. Some people even drive a car while actually asleep. The episode can be very brief (a few seconds or minutes) or can last for 30 minutes or longer.One common misconception is that a sleep walker should not be awakened. It is not dangerous to awaken a sleep walker, although it is common for the person to be confused or disoriented for a short time on awakening. Another misconception is that a person cannot be injured when sleep walking. Actually, injuries caused by such things as tripping and loss of balance are common for sleep walkers.
28Why Dream?Dreaming, primarily occurs during REM sleep. When someone is awakened during REM sleep, they usually report/remember a dream.The average adult dreams for about 1 ½ hours every night.Modern psychology suggests that dreams are simply a reflection of the brain’s aroused state during active sleep.
29Why Dream?During REM sleep, the cerebral cortex is active, but it is largely shut off from sensory input.The brain’s activity then is not constrained by the demands of external reality.Memory images become more prominent than during waking life – for they do have to compete with the insistent here and now provided by the senses.The recent experiences of the day are usually evoked, and they then arouse a number of previous memories and intermingle them.
30Freud’s wish-fulfillment Theory Dreams are the key to understanding our inner conflictsIdeas and thoughts that are hidden in our unconsciousManifest and latent content
31Freud’s theory of dreams Freud began with the assumption that at the root of every dream lies an attempt at wish fulfillment.While awake, a wish is not always acted upon because considerations of both reality (the ego) and morality (the super ego)But during sleep, these restraints are drastically weakened and the wish then leads to immediate thoughts and images of gratification.The underlying wish touches upon some forbidden impulses/desires that might be associated with anxiety.Therefore, the wish is censored (cannot be expressed directly) – only allowed to surface within a dream in symbolic disguise.The dreamer never experiences the latent (underlying) dream that is the hidden wish Instead, experiences the manifest (obvious) dream emerging after the defense mechanisms have done their work.Latent Content: the underlying meaning of a dream.Manifest Content: the remembered storyline of a dream.This latent-manifest dreaming represents a compromise between forbidden urges (id) and repressive forces (super ego) that hold them down.Essentially, according to Freud, dreaming is a symbolic process. True forbidden wishes are veiled in symbolic disguises.
32Information-Processing Theory Dreams act to sort out and understand the memories that you experience that dayREM sleep does increase after stressful events
33Physiological Function Theories Activation-Synthesis Theory:during the night our brainstem releases random neural activity, dreams may be a way to make sense of that activity.
34REM ReboundThe tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivationWhat will happen if you don’t get a good nights sleep for a week, and then sleep for 10 hours?You will dream a lot!!!
36Hypnosis Altered state of consciousness? Posthypnotic suggestion Posthypnotic amnesia
37Hypnotic Theories Role Theory State Theory Hypnosis is NOT an altered state of consciousness.Different people have various state of hypnotic suggestibility.A social phenomenon where people want to believe.Work better on people with richer fantasy lives.Hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness.Dramatic health benefitsIt works for pain best.
38Dissociation Theory Theory by Ernest Hilgard. We voluntarily divide our consciousness up.Ice Water Experiment.We have a hidden observer, a level of us that is always aware.
40Drugs and Consciousness Psychoactive Druga chemical substance that alters perceptions and moodPhysical Dependencephysiological need for a drugmarked by unpleasant withdrawal symptomsPsychological Dependencea psychological need to use a drugfor example, to relieve negative emotions
41Psychoactive Drugs drugs that reduce neural activity Depressants “Downers”drugs that reduce neural activityslow body functions*Alcohol (Involved in up to 60% of all crimes; the worst drug from amacro perspective out there)*barbiturates and opiatesStimulants “Uppers”drugs that excite neural activityspeed up body functionscaffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, cocaine, ecstasyHallucinogenspsychedelic (mind-manifesting) drugs that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory inputLSDBarbiturates “Tranquilizers”drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgmentOpiatesopium and its derivatives (morphine and heroin)opiates depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxietyAmphetaminesdrugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes