Presentation on theme: "Thinking and Language “What you hate is walking. This is hiking – hiking is different from walking.”"— Presentation transcript:
1Thinking and Language“What you hate is walking. This is hiking – hiking is different from walking.”
2Groups are responsible for making their own copies of handouts! Chapter 10 Group Lectures Create Powerpoint, Interactive Handout, AND a Short Engaging Class Activity)Group 1 – PagesGroup 2 – PagesGroup 3 – PagesGroup 4 – PagesGroup 5 – PagesGroup 6 – PagesGroup 7 – Pages*Planning Dates: February 1st (Today) – February 3rd*Group Lectures will begin on Friday, February 4thGroups are responsible for making their own copies of handouts!
3Groups are responsible for making their own copies of handouts! Hock Group Presentations Create Powerpoint, Interactive Handout, AND an Engaging Class Activity)Group 1 - A Sexual Motivation (pg ) February 23rdGroup 2 - I Can See It All Over Your Face (pg ) February 23rdGroup 3 - What You Expect Is What You Get (pg ) March 4thGroup 4 - Are You the Master of Your Fate? (pg ) March 15thGroup 5 - The One; The Many (pg ) March 15thGroup 6 - You’re Getting Defensive Again (pg ) March 16thGroup 7 - Who’s Crazy Here, Anyway? (pg ) March 29thGroups are responsible for making their own copies of handouts!
4Thinking = Cognition The word “think” has many meanings. In psychology, thinking means to reason, to ponder, or reflect. In other words, psychologists term thinking as Directed thinking.Directed thinking = a set of internal activities that are aimed at the solution to a problem.
5Thinking and LanguageCognition refers to all the mental activities associated with processing, understanding, and communicating information.Cognitive psychologists study these mental activities including logical and sometimes illogical ways in which we create concepts, solve problems, make decisions, and form judgments.To think about the countless events, and people in our world, we simplify things; we form concepts.
6Concepts Schemas In order to think about the world, we form…….. A mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, physical states of being, or peopleConcepts are similar to Piaget’s idea of….SchemasThese animals all look different, but they fall under our concept of “dogs”.
7Prototypes We base our concepts on …. A mental image or best example of a categoryIf a new object is similar to our prototype, we are better able to recognize it.If this was your prototype of a man; then what are you?
8Thinking and LanguageWhen we think we also use symbols. A symbol is an object or act that stands for something else.Example: the American flag, an owl, a snake, etc.Mental Images are types of symbols too.Example: picture a dog in your mind, that image stands fora real dog; it is not itself a dog.
9Components of Thought Two schools of thought: Mental Imagery Some psychologists propose that the ultimate constituents (parts) are mental images.Others suggest that thoughts are complex, abstract mental structures composed of concepts and mental images.Mental ImageryAccording to this theory, all thought is ultimately comprised of images which enter and exit consciousness.Research has shown this theory too simplistic; mental imagery plays an important role in thinking BUT not all.
10Abstract Elements of Thought There are components of thought that are not just mental images. They are essentially symbolic, abstract elements. (example: words).Consider a picture of a mouse, the word “mouse” and the real animal. (Compare them)The picture represents a mouse. The picture has many similiarities to the real animal.In contrast, the word “mouse” stands forthe same animal; but, unlike the picturethe word has NO similarities to the realanimal. (only symbolic/abstract connection)The relationship between the sound “mouse”or the written five-letter word mouse and thereal animal is entirely symbolic.
11“Dogs generally bite postmen.” Propositions = mental combination of simple associative train of thought in which one idea leads to another.“Dogs generally bite postmen.”Propositions are statements that relatea subject (the idea/object about which an assertion is made e.g., “dogs”)and a predicate (what is asserted about subject, e.g., “generally bite postmen”)In a way that can be true or false.
12“And don’t forget – make it look like an accident.” Problem Solving“And don’t forget – make it look like an accident.”12
13Problem SolvingThinking is the solving the myriad of problems we encounter every day.Thinking is an active process.Thinking can be defined as a stream of organized activity producing a chain of associated ideas each triggered by the one before.A problem solver goes through a sequence of internal steps which are organized in a special way directed towards the solving of a problem.
14How do we solve problems? We approach different types of problems in different ways.
15AlgorithmsA methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem.Example: mathematics is a complex system of algorithmic problem solving.Systemic search is an example of algorithms.EXAMPLE: C_ _ FF Complete the word.What are the benefits and detriments of algorithms?
16HeuristicsA rule-of-thumb strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficientlyWho would you trust to baby-sit your child?A creative short cut (that can be prone to errors)EXAMPLE:C _ _ CH use heuristics to solve this problem.Your answer is based on your heuristic of their appearances.
17Availability Heuristic Estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in our memory*If it comes to mind easily (maybe avivid event) we presume it is common.Judging a situation based on examples of similar situations that come to mind initiallyEXAMPLE: Estimating the divorce rate by recalling the number of divorces among your friends’ parents.Although diseases kill many more people than accidents, it has been shown that people will judge accidents and diseases to be equally fatal. This is because accidents are more dramatic and are often written up in the paper or seen on the news on t.v., and are more available in memory than diseases.
18Representativeness Heuristic Below is Linda. She loves books and hates loud noises. Is Linda a librarian or a beautician?A rule of thumb for judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they match our prototypeCan cause us to ignore important informationChances are, she is a beautician!!!
19Other heuristic problem solving methods Means-end analysis – breaking problem down into parts and trying to solve each part, eventually leading to the whole solution.Working backwards – (similar to means-end) breaking down into parts except you start with the final goal and work backwards to figure total solution.Analogies – comparative solving method where one similar item, situation, idea, etc. is used to solve another similar problem.Trial and error – random search for a solutionDifference reduction – identifying goal and where we are in relationship to that goal and then seek to reduce the difference between the two.
20InsightA sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problemNo real strategy involved
21ReasoningReasoning is the use of knowledge or information to research conclusions.Deductive reasoning – begin with general ideas or principles and reason down to specifics that fit the general statement/ideas.Inductive reasoning – begins with specifics and reason towards general conclusions.
23Confirmation BiasA tendency to search for information that confirms one’s preconceptionsFor example, if you believe that during a full moon there is an increase in admissions to the emergency room where you work, you will take notice of admissions during a full moon, but be inattentive to the moon when admissions occur during other nights of the month.
24Match ProblemCan you arrange these six matches into four equilateral triangles?
25Match Problem Fixation The inability to see a problem from a new perspective
26Mental SetA tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, especially if it has worked in the pastMay or may not be a good thing
27Functional FixednessThe tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functionsWhat are some things I can do with this quarter (other than spend it)?
28Overconfidence The tendency to be more confident than correct To overestimate the accuracy of your beliefs and judgmentsConsidering “overconfidence” who would risk 1 million dollars on an audience poll?
29Framing The way an issued is posed It can have drastic effects on your decisions and judgments.How do you think framing will play a part in this years’ CA governor election?
30Belief Bias1. Democrats support free speech.The tendency for one’s preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoningSometimes making invalid conclusions valid or vice versa2. Dictators are not Democrats.Conclusion: Dictators do not support free speech.
31Belief PerseveranceClinging to your initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited (in the face of contrary evidence)All Chicago Cubs fans who still believe that this is their year are suffering from belief perseverance.
32Unnecessary Constraints People often make assumptions that impose unnecessary constraints on problem-solving efforts.These constraints areproblem-solver imposed;NOT problem imposed.
33Solution to Nine-dot Problem What other possible solution can you come up with?
34Matchstick Problem Move only 2 matches to create 4 identical match stick squares.
35Artificial Intelligence AI: The science of designing and programming computer systems to do intelligent things and to stimulate human thought processes, such as intuitive reasoning, learning, and understanding language.
36It’s all about communication!!! Language and ThoughtIt’s all about communication!!!
37LanguageOur spoken, written, or gestured words and the way we combine them to communicate meaningA complex set of symbols with specific meaning to communicate thoughtsBelieve it or not, this communication is a form of language!!!
38With language, we create and interpret new ideas continuously. Language as CreativeWith language, we create and interpret new ideas continuously.Language is a system that allows us to reach limitless end from limited means: Our stock of memorized meaningful words is finite, but we have capacity to create an infinite number of new expressions.Example: “That’s a rabbit.” OR“That’s a rabbit over there.”“A rabbit is what I see over there.”“Obviously, that’s a rabbit.”“That’s clearly a rabbit.”etc.
39Language is Highly Structured We construct utterances in accord with certain abstract principles/rules of language structure.Example: would NOT say, “Is rabbit a that.”Structural principles underlie the way in which we combine words to make up new expression, and they are followed by most individuals (so that we can all understand each other).Prescriptive rules are essentially “rules of grammar.”
40Language as Meaningful Each word in a language expresses a meaningful idea (or concept) about some thing (e.g., rabbit, camera), action (e.g., run, jump), abstraction (e.g., justice, fun), quality (e.g., red, altruistic)Example: “dogs”, “cats”, and “bites” express very different meaningful thoughts depending on how they are put together
41Language is Interpersonal Many aspects of human language are within the individual and are thus the property of each single human mind.Language is a process that goes beyond the individual, for it is the social activity in which the thoughts of one mind are communicated to another mind.Each speaker must know the sounds, words, and sentences of his/her language as well as the principles of conversation.
42Structure of Language: Linguistics All human languages are organized as a hierarchy of structures.At the bottom of the hierarchy, each language consists of little snippets of sound.And at the top, complex dialogues and written creations.PhonemesPhonemes are the smallest distinctivesound units that are perceived.There are approximately 40 phonemesExamples: “th” “z” “b” “er” “t”How many phonemesdoes platypus have?
43Morphemes Fixed sequences of phonemes are joined into morphemes. There are approximately 80,000 morphemes.Morphemes are the smallest language units that carry bits of meaning.Some words consist of single morphemes such as “and” “run” or “strange” These are called Content Morphemes.Many morphemes can stand alone and must be joined with others to make up a complex word/idea.Example: “er” “s” These are calledFunction Morphemes.
44GrammarA system of rules in a language that enables us to communicate and understand othersSemantics + Syntax
45Semantics The set of rules by which we derive meaning in a language Adding ed at the end of words means past tense.The Chinese languages do not have expansive semantic rules. They usually have totally different symbols for different tenses.
46SyntaxThe rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentencesIn English, adjectives come before nouns, but not in Spanish!!Is this the White House or the House White?
47Language Development Language is developed in a sequence of steps. Crying (birth – 1 month) Crying is innate.The first signs of language is crying. (The beginning of sound.)Cooing (2 months – 6 months) By the second month, babies begin cooing. Coos are vowel sounds – expressing feelings of pleasure.Babbling (3/4 months – 10 months) Babbling is the combination of vowel and consonant sounds. Example: “ba”, “ga”, “da”Words (11 months – 18 months)Learning grammar - rules of language (beyond 18 months)
48Language DevelopmentCrying, cooing and babbling are basic human abilities regardless of culture or language (these steps are universal around the world).All babies produce the same early sounds no matter the culture or language.By about the eleventh month, babies begin to create sounds that they pick out and repeat from phonemes used by the people around them. Example: “mama”One-word stage – From age 1-2 a child speaks mostly in single words.The start of real language begins with words.
49Language DevelopmentWord acquisition occurs slowly. After the baby has learned its first word, it might be another 3 or 4 months before the baby develops a 10-word vocabulary.By 18 months, a child has dozens of words in his/her vocabulary (mostly nouns).Reading to young children increases their vocabulary.Children sometimes overreach – they try to talk about more things than they have words for. This is called overextension.Example: “dog” used for other animals.
50Language DevelopmentTwo-word stage – by 2 years, most children begin to use two-word sentences. “That doggie.” means “that is a dog.”Even brief two-word utterances show understanding of grammar, “Sit chair” or “My doggy” – “Mommy go” vs. “Go mommy”Telegraphic speech – Early stage in which a child speaks like a telegram – using mostly nouns and verbs; omitting “auxiliary words.”Between 2-3 years, children begin to add the missing words such as conjunctions, articles, pronouns, etc.
51How do we explain language development? Skinner thought that we can explain language development through social learning theory (which is?).The young boy imitates his dad, then gets a reward.
52Chomsky Inborn Universal Grammar We acquire language too quickly for it to be learned.We have this “learning box” inside our heads that enable us to learn any human language.
53Does language influence our thinking? Whorf’s Linguistic RelativityThe idea that language determinesthe way we think (not vise versa).The Hopi tribe has no pasttense in their language, soWhorf says they rarely thinkof the past.
54Thinking without Language We can think in words.But more often we think in mental pictures.In 1977, Reggie Jackson hit 3 HR’s against the Dodgers. He has stated that before each at bat, he visualizes crushing a home run. Do you think visualization helps?