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MONDAY 9/21 Key concepts/Chapter 4:

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1 MONDAY 9/21 Key concepts/Chapter 4: Freedom Dues: In the early years of the Virginia colony, many Africans and poor whites -- most of the laborers came from the English working class -- stood on the same ground. All were indentured servants; they were fed and housed. At the end of the contract, they would be given what were known as "freedom dues," which usually included a piece of land and supplies, including a gun. Black or white, they became free. (hint: things change over time!) Bacon’s Rebellion: Nathaniel Bacon and other western VA settlers were angry at VA Governor Berkley for trying to appease the Doeg Indians after the Doegs attacked western settlements. The frontiersmen formed an army, with Bacon as its leader, which defeated the Indians and then marched on the capitol Jamestown and burned the city. The rebellion ended suddenly when Bacon died of an illness.

2 Question? of the Day The Freake Family, Image Source: Wikimedia Commons (public domain) In colonial American society     (A)    women were seen as equal to men     (B)    women had absolutely no social rights and could not even divorce their husbands     (C)    almost the only opportunity for women to work was inside the home     (D)    women could usually vote     (E)    women became prominent preachers in Protestant churches following the Great Awakening

3 What Is the Answer? (C)  almost the only opportunity for women to work was inside the home Explanation: Women in colonial America had limited opportunities for work and property ownership and could not vote. Yet Carl Degler points out in Out of Our Past that the typical colonial American woman had more rights and freedoms than any woman in western Europe at that time.

4 TUESDAY 9/22 Key concepts/Chapter 4: Navigation Acts: The English Navigation Acts were a series of laws which restricted the use of foreign shipping for trade between England and its colonies, which started in These laws passed by Parliament ensured that all colonial goods would be controlled by Great Britain and other nations would not have the opportunity to deal directly with Britain’s colonies. Mercantilism: Economic policy that was based upon all colonies existing to further strengthen the mother country. The government exercised control over industry and trade with the idea that national strength and economic security comes from exporting more than is imported. This theory was prevalent in the New World and caused discontent among American businessmen and traders

5 The major purpose of England’s mercantilist policy was to
Question? of the Day Colonial Williamburg baskets Merchant’s Square, Williamsburg, Virginia The major purpose of England’s mercantilist policy was to (A)    protect the infant industries of England’s young colonies (B)    increase England’s prosperity (C)    discourage other European powers from colonizing North America (D)    reduce the need for an overseas empire (E)  open the Atlantic to free trade

6 (B) increase England’s prosperity
What Is the Answer? (B)    increase England’s prosperity Explanation: From the perspective of England’s mercantilist policy, the North American colonies were established to enrich England. While mercantilism was not focused on discouraging other European powers from colonizing N. America, it did expect that a large and growing British overseas empire would be of great benefit to Britain. England was concerned with keeping its labor force employed and saw the advantages of overseas materials and markets. It did not, however, protect infant industries, but rather prohibited the development of industries in its colonies that would compete with the mother country. England did not want to open the Atlantic to free trade, but wanted to become economically self-sufficient by achieving a favorable balance of trade.

7 WEDNESDAY 9/23 Vocabulary/Chapter 4: “Salutary Neglect”: Early policy of dealing with its colonies ( ). As their first colonies were developing, Britain did not exercise much control over them. The policy allowed the colonies to experience freedom from the control of England, leading them to develop the beginnings of their own representative assemblies, trade free of restraint from the mother country, and religious tolerance. The term comes from a speech by Prime Minister Edmund Burke before Parliament on March 22, He used it to speak of Britain's former policy toward its American colonies. Gullah: unique language of slaves, developed on the Islands off the coast of N. Carolina which may have Its base in the language of Angola. Blends English with several African languages and has Given us the words of goober, gumbo and voodoo. Prime Minister Robert Walpole believed that unrestricted trade would be more profitable than taxing the colonies.

8 Question? of the Day "Arresting a Witch" by Howard Pyle, 1893 Image Source: Wikimedia Commons (public domain) The Salem Witchcraft Crisis of     (A)    was over quickly and resulted in imprisonments, but no deaths     (B)    began when a group of boys accused other Salem residents of practicing witchcraft     (C)    resulted in the deaths of 20 persons accused of witchcraft     (D)    took place in Connecticut     (E)    set a pattern of hanging witches that became common in New England during the 18th century

9 (C) resulted in the deaths of 20 persons accused of witchcraft
What Is the Answer? (C)    resulted in the deaths of 20 persons accused of witchcraft Explanation: The Salem Witchcraft Crisis of 1692 began after several girls accused women in the village of practicing witchcraft. Following accusations and trials, 20 men and women were eventually hanged or crushed to death as witches.

10 THURSDAY 9/24 Vocabulary/Chapter 4: Anthony Johnson: An early black resident of the Virginia Colony. He was one of the original 20 Africans brought to Jamestown in 1619 as an indentured servant. In 1623, he purchased his freedom and by 1651 he was prosperous enough to import five "servants" of his own, for which he was granted 250 acres as "headrights". Anthony Johnson became a slaveholder himself when he convinced a court that he was entitled to the lifetime services of a Negro named John Casor. This was the first judicial approval of servitude for life. Half Way Covenant: Puritan teaching which emphasized biblical agreements between man and God. This new formula for church membership now allowed unconverted children of existing members to the church. These half-way members could not vote on issues within the church but could participate in church activities. This weakened the distinction between the “elect” and others. From this point on, women became the majority in Puritan congregations.

11 Question? of the Day Quaker Mary Dyer being led to the gallows in Boston in 1660, an example of Puritan intolerance Image Source: Wikimedia Commons (public domain) Which of the following was an early advocate of religious toleration in colonial America?     (A)  John Winthrop     (B)   Roger Williams     (C)   Cotton Mather     (D)  Nathanael Bacon     (E)   John Smith

12 What Is the Answer? (B) Roger Williams
Explanation: Roger Williams was expelled by the Puritan authorities in Massachusetts Bay in 1635 because of numerous challenges made from his pulpit regarding their authority. He established a colony at  Providence, Rhode Island that practiced religious toleration in a time of extreme intolerance. He first used the phrase "wall of separation" to describe the ideal relationship between the government and the church and is credited with beginning the American belief in separation of church and state. Roger Williams, a Puritan critic and supporter of religious freedom Image Source: Wikimedia Commons (public domain)

13 FRIDAY 9/25 Key concepts/ Chapter 4: Harvard College: Established by Massachusetts Puritans in 1636, just eight years after the Colony’s founding, to train boys for the ministry. Virginia did not establish its first college, William & Mary, until 1693. Leisler’s Rebellion: When King James II was dethroned and replaced by King William of the Netherlands, the colonists of New York rebelled and made Jacob Leiser, a militia officer, governor of New York. Leisler favored Dutch laborers and artisans over the ruling elite (merchants). When royal authority was reinstated in 1691, Leisler refused to cede authority and English troops entered the city and armed conflict ensued. Leisler was hanged for treason but the representative assembly which he founded remained part of the government of New York.

14 (E) It instituted social equality
Question? of the Day Emigration to American destinations was popular from Bristol, England and after the Civil War more than 10,000 indentured servants made their way to the New World. Image source: The system of indentured labor used during the Colonial period has which of the following effects? (A)  It enabled England to deport most criminals     (B)  It enabled poor people to seek opportunity in America     (C)  It delayed the establishment of slavery in the South until about 1750     (D)  It facilitated the cultivation of cotton in the south     (E)   It instituted social equality

15 What Is the Answer? (B)    It enabled poor people to seek opportunity in America Explanation: Many poor English settlers paid for passage to America by signing labor contracts, called indentures, binding them for four or five years. Sea captains or merchants recruited migrants at the docks and then assigned the contracts to labor-starved planters unop reaching VA or MD, in exchange for cash or tobacco. The owners provided food, clothing and shelter but they received all the profits of the servants’ labor. Some indentured may have been charged with crimes in England, but the system did not permit England to deport “most” criminals. Indentured laborers did not delay slavery very long; by the late 1600s, plantation owners had begun to use large numbers of slaves. Heavy production of cotton began after slave labor had largely replaced indentured servants. Although indentured servant did gain opportunity, the system by no means led to social equality.

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