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Standard 9: Chemical Equilibrium chapter 18

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1 Standard 9: Chemical Equilibrium chapter 18
Vocabulary: Equilibrium position Equilibrium constant Reversible reaction Rate Concentration Le Chatelier’s Principle Chemistry. Ms. Siddall

2 Standard 9b: equilibrium conditions
Reversible Reactions Most reactions are ‘reversible’ Forward reaction: reactants make products e.x. 3O2(g)  2O3(g) Reverse reaction: products make reactants e.x. 2O3(g)  3O2(g) In a reversible reaction the forward and reverse reactions occur at the same time e.x. 3O2(g)  2 O3(g)

3 Summary 1 What is a reversible reaction?

4 Reversible reactions reach
equilibrium: a balance between reactants and products Conditions of Equilibrium: rate of forward reaction = rate of reverse reaction Concentration of reactants and products is constant (does not change) NOTE: Rate = speed Concentration = number of particles or moles example: [HCl] = concentration of HCl 6M HCl = 6mole/L HCl = 6 moles of HCl per liter of solution

5 Summary 2 What is equilibrium?

6 Reversible reaction: X  Y
concentration rate [Y] Y  X time time Concentrations are constant Reaction rates are equal equilibrium

7 Summary 3 Describe the part of each graph that illustrates equilibrium conditions.

8 Le Chatelier’s Principle
9a: Le Chatelier’s Principle Le Chatelier’s Principle A system in equilibrium will react to relieve stress (change) and re-establish equilibrium Stress: Adding reactants or products Removing reactants or products Changing temperature Changing pressure (for gases only)

9 Summary 4 According to Le Chatelier’s Principle, what will happen to a system at equilibrium if more reactants or products are added?

10 Example: N2(g) + 3H2(g)  NH3(g) + heat
Stress: Add N2 Stress relief: Forward reaction (→) to get rid of N2 H2 is used up (↓) NH3 and Heat are produced (↑)

11 Summary 5: N2(g) + 3H2(g)  NH3(g) + heat
Stress: remove N2 Stress relief: Which way does equilibrium shift? What happens to [H2]? What happens to [NH3]? What happens to heat?

12 Stress relief. Adding products or reactants
Equilibrium shifts to remove addition Removing products or reactants Equilibrium shifts to replace what has been removed Gasses Equilibrium shifts to produce: more gas at low pressure Less gas at high pressure

13 Summary 6 Why would a gas equilibrium system produce more gas at low pressure and less gas at high pressure?

14 Haber Process: N2(g) + 3H2(g)  NH3(g) + heat
Change Equilib. [N2] [H2] [NH3] ↑ [N2] ↓ [N2] ↑ [H2] ↓ [H2] ↑ [NH3] ↓ [NH3]

15 Haber Process: N2(g) + 3H2(g)  2NH3(g) + heat
Change Equilib. [N2] [H2] [NH3] ↑ heat ↓ heat ↑pressure ↓pressure

16 Summary 7 According to Le Chatelier’s Principle:
Increasing reactant concentration will cause: other reactants to __________? products to __________? Decreasing reactant concentration will cause:

17 A(g) + B(g)  AB(g) + heat

18 Summary 8 ↑ heat ↓ [A] ↑pressure ↓[AB]
A(g) + B(g)  AB(g) + heat Complete the table of equilibrium changes Change Equilib. [A] [B] [AB] ↑ heat ↓ [A] ↑pressure ↓[AB]

19 Equilibrium Constant: Keq
HONORS Standard 9c: equilibrium constant Equilibrium Constant: Keq At equilibrium concentrations are constant Keq represents concentrations of reactants and products at equilibrium Example: aA + bB  cC + dD Keq = [C]c[D]d [A]a[B]b

20 Summary 9 write Keq expression for the Haber-Bosch Process: N2(g) + 3H2(g)  2NH3(g)

21 Concentrations calculated in mol/L (M)
Only solutions(aq) & gases(g) are considered No solids (s) No liquids (l) Example: 2H2O(l)  2H2(g) + O2(g) Keq = [H2]2[O2]

22 Summary 10 Fe(OH)2(aq) + 2HSO3(aq)  Fe(SO3)2(aq) + 2H2O(l) Find Keq

23 What Keq tells us If Keq ≤ 1 There are more reactants than products at equilibrium If Keq ≤ 1/100 There are mostly reactants at equilibrium If Keq ≥ 1 There are more products than reactants at equilibrium If Keq ≥ 100 There are mostly products at equilibrium

24 Summary 11 CO(g) + 2H2(g)  CH3OH(g) Keq=290 at 430°C
Write the expression for Keq Reaction is… (mostly products or reactants?)

25 Solubility Ksp is the equilibrium constant for solubility
Example: AgCl(s)  Ag+(aq) + Cl-(aq) Ksp AgCl = 1.77 x 10-10 Does not really dissolve, mostly solid Example: AgNO3(s)  Ag+(aq) + NO3-(aq) Ksp AgNO3 ~ 1 x 1010 Very soluble

26 Summary 13 Write the balanced equation for the dissolving of sodium sulfate. Write a Ksp expression for the reaction.

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