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Unit 7 The Gilded Age 1877-1900.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 7 The Gilded Age 1877-1900."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 7 The Gilded Age

2 The Presidents

3 Rutherford B. Hayes – 19th President of U.S.
1 term: Republican Party Removed remaining Federal troops from the South Ended Reconstruction

4 James A. Garfield – 20th President of U.S.
1 term: 1881 Republican Party Assassinated

5 Chester A. Arthur – 21st President of U.S.
1 term: Republican Party

6 Grover Cleveland – 22nd and 24th President of U.S.
2 terms: Democratic Party

7 Benjamin Harrison – 23rd President of U.S.
1 term: Republican Party

8 Grover Cleveland – 22nd and 24th President of U.S.
2 terms: Democratic Party

9 William McKinley – 25th President of U.S.
2 terms: Republican Party

10 Reshaping the Nation The Frontier West

11 The Frontier West Comstock Lode, 1859
“Danged blue stuff” Miners come from across U.S., France, Germany, Ireland, Mexico, and China Boom town grew into Virginia City, Nevada

12 The Frontier West Other strikes Colorado: gold
Denver & Colorado Springs grew up near gold mines 1870s: major gold strikes in Black Hills of South Dakota

13 The Frontier West Thousands of people go west to supply miners’ needs
tools – stores food – laundries clothing – boarding houses supplies – hotels restaurants Miners paid high prices Stagecoaches and mule teams could not carry enough supplies West quick enough

14 The Frontier West Miners forced Native Americans off their lands, and foreigners were ill-treated Few miners got rich quick Eventually, most mining in the West was taken over by large companies Boom towns → Ghost towns Many boom towns lasted only a few years until the ore “played out”

15 1873: Levi Strauss and Jacob Davis patented blue denim pants with copper rivets
Within 2 years, workers throughout the West (such as miners) were wearing these sturdy “blue jeans”

16 The Frontier West Railroads Transcontinental Railroad
Federal government encouraged the building of railroads Gave land to railroad companies Ignored rights of Native Americans Transcontinental Railroad 1863: Two companies started a race Union Pacific – began in Omaha, Nebraska Central Pacific – began in Sacramento, California

17 The Frontier West Building the Transcontinental Railroad
Labor was scarce during the Civil War Railroad companies hired immigrant workers Central Pacific hired thousands from China Union Pacific hired newcomers from Ireland Both hired African Americans and Mexicans

18 Promontory Point, Utah – May 10, 1869
First transcontinental railroad was completed Leland Stanford, Pres. of Central Pacific, hammered a golden spike in the rail joining the two tracks

19 The Frontier West Railroads New states
More new railroad lines were built linking East and West Brought rapid growth and settlement in West New states 1864: Nevada – 1890: Idaho 1876: Colorado – 1890: Wyoming 1889: North Dakota 1889: South Dakota 1889: Montana 1889: Washington

20 Shooting buffalo from a train

21 Frontier: Plains Indians
Sioux Lakota, Dakota, Nakota Sun Dance Important religious ceremony

22 Frontier: Plains Indians
Great Plains Good for farming and ranching Gold strikes and railroads bring white settlers U.S. government forced Indian leaders to sign new treaties, giving up their land Some Native Americans refused attacked trains burned settlers’ homes killed miners and U.S. soldiers Across Great Plains, soldiers and Indians went to war

23 Frontier: Plains Indians
Red Cloud Lakota War Chief

24 Frontier: Plains Indians
Federal government wants peace Urged Native Americans to live like whites Took Lakota children to a school in Indiana New treaties in late 1860s Indians moved to reservations in Oklahoma and South Dakota

25 Frontier: Plains Indians
Sioux War of 1876 1874, prospectors found gold in Black Hills of South Dakota Thousands of miners go there U.S. army sent to drive Indians to reservation and away from miners

26 Frontier: Plains Indians
Col. George A. Custer Led U.S. army soldiers Battle of Little Big Horn June 1876 Lakotas and Cheyennes war with U.S. army Custer knew he was outnumbered, but attacked anyway Custer and his men were trapped and killed

27 Frontier: Plains Indians
Crazy Horse

28 Frontier: Plains Indians
Black Hills, SD Eventually, more soldiers arrived and forced Indians onto reservations A few Lakota leaders fled to Canada Plains Indians suffer Losing battles Buffalo being destroyed Starvation Broken treaties Forced onto reservations

29 Frontier: Plains Indians
Ghost Dance Lakota religious ceremony Celebrated time when Indians lived freely on Plains White settlers alarmed – thought Indians were preparing for war

30 Frontier: Plains Indians
December 1890 Police officers enter Standing Rock Reservation to arrest Lakota Chief Sitting Bull Settlers claimed him responsible for spread of Ghost Dance Officers and Indians struggle Sitting Bull accidentally shot and killed Groups of leaders fled reservation Army troops pursued and brought them to Wounded Knee Creek

31 Frontier: Plains Indians
Wounded Knee Creek Indians began to surrender and giving up guns A shot was fired Army opened fire with rifles and machine guns Nearly 300 Native Americans (men, women, and children) were killed About 30 soldiers died Fighting at Wounded Knee marked end of Indian wars and end of Ghost Dance religion

32 Frontier: Plains Indians
Corpse of Big Foot several days after his death when troops came to bury the frozen bodies Lakota Chief Big Foot

33 Frontier: Plains Indians
Long history of broken treaties between U.S. and Native Americans Life on reservations changed Native American culture Federal government wanted Indians to give up old ways (language, religion, customs, etc.) Assimilation Indians became dependent on federal government for food and supplies

34 Frontier: Plains Indians
1887 Dawes Act Divided up some Native American lands and gave to individual families Encouraged Indians to become farmers Promoted assimilation Broke up some reservations Policy failed

35 Plains: Ranching & Farming
After Civil War, growing cities in East demanded more beef Ranchers began cattle drives north to ship their cattle by rail to Chicago Chisholm Trail (best known trail) Sedalia Trail Abilene, Kansas, was major shipping point

36 Plains: Ranching & Farming
Cattle drives Hot, dirty, tiring work 10-14 hour days Took about 3 months Hazards Stampedes Crossing rivers Swamps Grass fires Attacks from cattle thieves Cowboys celebrated when they reached a railroad town Difficult for sheriffs to keep the peace

37 Plains: Ranching & Farming
1862 Homestead Act Government gave 160 acres to anyone who could farm it for 5 years By 1900s, half million farmers settled on Great Plains 1870s Cattle ranches began springing up in West Water scarce on open range Ranchers fight over water holes and streams Farmers began moving onto open range

38 Plains: Ranching & Farming
Sodbusters Plains farmers James Oliver designed special sod-busting plow Farmers built windmills to reach water often hundreds of feet below surface Hazards Grass fires Grasshoppers Winter winds, icy gusts, snow drifts Sod houses



41 Plains: Ranching & Farming
1879 Exodusters Large group of African Americans move to Kansas Southern blacks escaping the South 1880s Harsh winters in late 1880s led to loss of herds Ranchers and farmers began using barbed wire Era of open range and cattle drives ended

42 Plains: Ranching & Farming
Oklahoma Land Rush Last major land rush Began at noon on April 22, 1889 “Boomers” charged in to stake land “Sooners” snuck in and staked much of best land 1890 No more frontier in U.S.

43 Plains: Ranching & Farming
Populist Party People’s Party Formed in 1891 to help farmers and laborers Called on government to help Falling farm prices Regulation of railroad rates Income tax 8 hour work day Limits on immigration Free silver (to increase the supply of money) Also wanted direct election of senators and secret voting ballots

44 Plains: Ranching & Farming
William Jennings Bryan “Great Commoner” 1896 Presidential candidate for Democrats & Populists Lost to Republican candidate William McKinley

45 Plains: Ranching & Farming
Populist Party Broke up after 1896 when prosperity returned, but many ideas lived on 8 hour work day later became the standard for American workers 1913 Constitutional Amendment authorizing Income Tax

46 Reshaping the Nation Cities & Industry

47 Bessemer process Henry Bessemer patented in 1855
First inexpensive industrial process for mass-production of steel from molten pig iron Key principle – removal of impurities by oxidation air blown through the molten iron

48 1871 Chicago Fire One of largest U.S. disasters in 19th C
October 8 – 10 Destroyed 4 sq. mi. Originally slide 54 (after Bessemer)

49 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act Banned all but a few Chinese immigrants
Not lifted until 1943

50 1883 Pendleton Act Civil Service Reform Act
Created Civil Service Commission Civil Service exams

51 1886 Haymarket Riot - Chicago
Workers strike at McCormick Harvester Co. Workers clash with police trying to break up strike Police open fire and kill 4 workers Next day, thousands of workers gather to protest A bomb explodes Police open fire, killing 10 & wounding 50

52 1890 Sherman Antitrust Act Outlawed trusts
Supreme Court did not support Trust Different companies agree to work together

53 Gilded Age Economic, territorial, industrial, & population expansion “Gilded Age” coined by Mark Twain Start here on Tues 1/30

54 Expansion of industry in North leads to growth of big business
Gilded Age Expansion of industry in North leads to growth of big business Growing cities Crowded conditions Filth (lack waste & garbage removal) Lack of clean water Disease Transportation problems

55 Gilded Age Social Darwinism
Government should allow free competition in business to allow the best individuals to succeed

56 Gilded Age Robber barons Trust Monopoly
Leaders who used trusts to control an industry Trust Different companies agree to work together Monopoly A firm controlling all competition in an industry

57 Robber Barons Andrew Carnegie Steel

58 Robber Barons J. P. Morgan Financier/banker

59 Robber Barons John D. Rockefeller Oil

60 Robber Barons Cornelius Vanderbilt Railroads & shipping

61 William McKinley – 25th President of U.S.
2 terms: Republican Party Spanish American War Assassinated

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