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Renaissance/Reformation

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Presentation on theme: "Renaissance/Reformation"— Presentation transcript:

1 Renaissance/Reformation
Chapter 13

2 Renaissance Renaissance means – “Rebirth”
It was a time of change in Politics, Social Structure, Economics, and Culture. Changed from an agricultural society to an Urban Society It was a study of Roman and Greek cultures.

3 Renaissance Attitudes
live life on earth fully develop individual talent public service and politics

4 Humanism an intellectual movement that studied the ancient Greeks and Romans in an effort to better understand their own times Spiritual  Secular Humanities- grammar, rhetoric, poetry, & history 7th hour

5 Reasons for Italian Renaissance
Past greatness of Rome Money from trade and rising middle class

6 Major Cities Florence- richest Bankers and Merchants
Patron- financial supporter (e.g. The Medici Family, Lorenzo in particular) Venice – Trade Milan – Textiles

7 Art Humanistic Reflection Perspective – depth added to art
Combination of religious and secular Reflections of individualism and public service Perspective – depth added to art Use of shading New oil paints Study of human anatomy

8 Leonardo da Vinci “Renaissance Man”
-Anatomy, Engineering, Painting, Scuplture, Botany, Optics, Music Works: Mona Lisa, The Last Supper

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14 Michelangelo Buonarroti
Most well-known, “the greatest” Sculptor, engineer, painter, architect, poet Works: David, Pieta, Sistine Chapel

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17 Raphael Mastered the use of PERSPECTIVE!!!!
Known Work: School of Athens

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19 Donatello Known for his use of Balance and Proportion
Taught Michelangelo

20 Literature Honoring the history of Rome and Greece
Criticizing the Middle ages and current government Baldassare Castiglione The Book of the Courtier How a member of a court should live! Niccolo Machiavelli The Prince How one should gain and maintain power

21 Printing Revolution Printing Press: Gutenberg
first Book?? printed with movable type prior: Handwritten books advantages: more books are published higher supply of books leads to lower price lower price allows more people to read more communication of ideas results from more reading

22 Art in N. Renaissance Flanders  France, Belgium, and Netherlands
Major area of Renaissance art Albrecht Drurer: studied in Italy German artist Applied ideas of art to engravings Engraving: etching Perfected by Drurer

23 Literature Vernacular: everyday language Desiderius Erasmus:
The Praise of the Folly Greek Bible Sir Thomas More Utopia William Shakespeare Poet and playwright 37 plays still performed today

24 Reformation Spiritual Break-down of the Christian Church
Catalyzed by ideas of the Renaissance and the invention of the Printing Press Led to the current Christian demographics

25 Church Abuses Pope as military commander? Lavish lives of the Clergy
Marriage of the Clergy Selling of Indulgences Indulgences: payment to get soul out of purgatory

26 Early Revolts John Wycliffe used sermons and writings to attack the church in 1300s Martin Luther Primary catalyst of the Reformation German Monk and Professor Writes the 95 Theses and nails to door in Wittenberg Set off by Johann Tetzel selling indulgences and promising entry to heaven

27 Results of the 95 Theses No intention of starting the Reformation
Printing Revolution lights a fire storm Church asked Luther to recant, he refused Luther urged people to reject the authority of Rome Luther was excommunicated in 1521 by Pope Leo X

28 Summoning Luther summoned to Diet of Worms by Charles V
Asked to recant a second time, refused again Charles declared Luther an outlaw

29 Luther’s Teachings All have equal access to the Bible
Schools est., vernacular translation Banned indulgences, confession, pilgrimages, and prayers to saints Simplified the sermon Allowed clergy to marry

30 Why were Luther’s Teachings supported by the Germans?
Gain authority over the church Gain church property for selfish reasons National loyalty German money should stay in German lands

31 Peasant Revolt Peasants rise up for social and economic equality
Luther denounces and supports political authority and social order

32 The Peace of Augsburg 1555 Princes get the choice of religion

33 Swiss Reformation Ulrich Zwingli John Calvin Priest in Zurich
Stressed importance of bible, reject elaborate rituals John Calvin Major contributor to the Reformation Published a book on how to set up and run a church as well as his beliefs that should be the basis of that church

34 John Calvin cont. Preached PREDESTINATION
Everything is already decided Sinners/saints Geneva asks Calvin to lead the community Est. theocracy Harsh punishments for basic activities of dancing, laughing in church, ect. Helped set off bloody wars

35 Religious Development
Sect: religious groups variations of the teachings of Luther, Calvin, and Zwingli Anabaptists: reject infantile baptism Today: Baptists, Mennonites, and Amish

36 English Reformation Henry VIII- king of England
Henry + Catherine of Aragon = Mary Tudor Anne Boleyn - served Catherine Annulment declined because Charles V was the nephew of Catherine

37 Henry’s Take Over Act of Supremacy passed – King is head of Church
Many executed: Thomas More Canonized: recognized as a saint Henry merely changed the name of the Church Thomas Cramer appointed to be bishop of the new Church

38 The Tudors Died in 1547: 9yr old Edward VI took throne
Continued Protestantism Book of Common Prayer Mary Tudor ‘Bloody Mary’ took over Tried returning to Catholicism Was killed in protest Elizabeth slowly returns to Protestantism Compromise: acceptable middle ground

39 Elizabethan Comprimise Protestants
Catholics Elizabethan Comprimise Protestants -Hierarchy of Catholicism -Monarch can make changes -Restored Book of Common Prayer -English instead of Latin -Protestant Doctrine

40 The Catholic Reformation
Reformation or Counter-Reformation? Council of Trent- est. schools, end corruption, faith and works = salvation, Bible is not the only source of religious truth Reaffirmed the inquisition Index of Forbidden Books

41 People of the Catholic Reformation
Ignatius of Loyola – Spanish knight Society of Jesus – Jesuits Missionaries, schools, strict discipline to the church Teresa of Avila – entered convent very young Not strict enough Set up own order Life of isolation, eating and sleeping very little Canonized by the church

42 Widespread Persecution
Witch hunts Jews forced to live in ghettoes Jews were forced to move and temples were burned


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