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Renaissance/Reformation Chapter 13. Renaissance Renaissance means –Rebirth It was a time of change in Politics, Social Structure, Economics, and Culture.

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Presentation on theme: "Renaissance/Reformation Chapter 13. Renaissance Renaissance means –Rebirth It was a time of change in Politics, Social Structure, Economics, and Culture."— Presentation transcript:

1 Renaissance/Reformation Chapter 13

2 Renaissance Renaissance means –Rebirth It was a time of change in Politics, Social Structure, Economics, and Culture. Changed from an agricultural society to an Urban Society It was a study of Roman and Greek cultures.

3 Renaissance Attitudes live life on earth fully develop individual talent public service and politics

4 Humanism an intellectual movement that studied the ancient Greeks and Romans in an effort to better understand their own times Spiritual Secular Humanities- grammar, rhetoric, poetry, & history

5 Reasons for Italian Renaissance Past greatness of Rome Money from trade and rising middle class

6 Major Cities Florence- richest Bankers and Merchants Patron- financial supporter (e.g. The Medici Family, Lorenzo in particular) Venice – Trade Milan – Textiles

7 Art Humanistic Reflection –Combination of religious and secular –Reflections of individualism and public service Perspective – depth added to art Use of shading New oil paints Study of human anatomy

8 Leonardo da Vinci Renaissance Man -Anatomy, Engineering, Painting, Scuplture, Botany, Optics, Music Works: Mona Lisa, The Last Supper






14 Michelangelo Buonarroti Most well-known, the greatest Sculptor, engineer, painter, architect, poet Works: –David, Pieta, Sistine Chapel



17 Raphael Mastered the use of PERSPECTIVE!!!! Known Work: School of Athens


19 Donatello Known for his use of Balance and Proportion Taught Michelangelo

20 Literature Honoring the history of Rome and Greece Criticizing the Middle ages and current government Baldassare Castiglione –The Book of the Courtier How a member of a court should live! Niccolo Machiavelli –The Prince How one should gain and maintain power

21 Printing Revolution Printing Press: Gutenberg –first Book?? printed with movable type –prior: Handwritten books advantages: more books are published higher supply of books leads to lower price lower price allows more people to read more communication of ideas results from more reading

22 Art in N. Renaissance Flanders France, Belgium, and Netherlands –Major area of Renaissance art Albrecht Drurer: studied in Italy –German artist –Applied ideas of art to engravings Engraving: etching –Perfected by Drurer

23 Literature Vernacular: everyday language Desiderius Erasmus: –The Praise of the Folly –Greek Bible Sir Thomas More –Utopia William Shakespeare –Poet and playwright –37 plays still performed today

24 Reformation Spiritual Break-down of the Christian Church Catalyzed by ideas of the Renaissance and the invention of the Printing Press Led to the current Christian demographics

25 Church Abuses Pope as military commander? Lavish lives of the Clergy Marriage of the Clergy Selling of Indulgences –Indulgences: payment to get soul out of purgatory

26 Early Revolts John Wycliffe used sermons and writings to attack the church in 1300s Martin Luther –Primary catalyst of the Reformation –German Monk and Professor –Writes the 95 Theses and nails to door in Wittenberg Set off by Johann Tetzel selling indulgences and promising entry to heaven

27 Results of the 95 Theses No intention of starting the Reformation Printing Revolution lights a fire storm Church asked Luther to recant, he refused Luther urged people to reject the authority of Rome Luther was excommunicated in 1521 by Pope Leo X

28 Summoning Luther summoned to Diet of Worms by Charles V Asked to recant a second time, refused again Charles declared Luther an outlaw

29 Luthers Teachings All have equal access to the Bible –Schools est., vernacular translation Banned indulgences, confession, pilgrimages, and prayers to saints Simplified the sermon Allowed clergy to marry

30 Why were Luthers Teachings supported by the Germans? Gain authority over the church Gain church property for selfish reasons National loyalty –German money should stay in German lands

31 Peasant Revolt Peasants rise up for social and economic equality Luther denounces and supports political authority and social order

32 The Peace of Augsburg 1555 Princes get the choice of religion

33 Swiss Reformation Ulrich Zwingli –Priest in Zurich –Stressed importance of bible, reject elaborate rituals John Calvin –Major contributor to the Reformation –Published a book on how to set up and run a church as well as his beliefs that should be the basis of that church

34 John Calvin cont. Preached PREDESTINATION –Everything is already decided –Sinners/saints Geneva asks Calvin to lead the community –Est. theocracy –Harsh punishments for basic activities of dancing, laughing in church, ect. Helped set off bloody wars

35 Religious Development Sect: religious groups –variations of the teachings of Luther, Calvin, and Zwingli Anabaptists: reject infantile baptism –Today: Baptists, Mennonites, and Amish

36 English Reformation Henry VIII- king of England Henry + Catherine of Aragon = Mary Tudor Anne Boleyn - served Catherine Annulment declined because Charles V was the nephew of Catherine

37 Henrys Take Over Act of Supremacy passed – King is head of Church –Many executed: Thomas More –Canonized: recognized as a saint Henry merely changed the name of the Church Thomas Cramer appointed to be bishop of the new Church

38 The Tudors Died in 1547: 9yr old Edward VI took throne –Continued Protestantism –Book of Common Prayer Mary Tudor Bloody Mary took over –Tried returning to Catholicism –Was killed in protest Elizabeth slowly returns to Protestantism –Compromise: acceptable middle ground

39 CatholicsElizabethan Comprimise Protestants - Hierarchy of Catholicism -Monarch can make changes -Restored Book of Common Prayer -English instead of Latin -Protestant Doctrine

40 The Catholic Reformation Reformation or Counter-Reformation? Council of Trent- est. schools, end corruption, faith and works = salvation, Bible is not the only source of religious truth –Reaffirmed the inquisition –Index of Forbidden Books

41 People of the Catholic Reformation Ignatius of Loyola – Spanish knight –Society of Jesus – Jesuits –Missionaries, schools, strict discipline to the church Teresa of Avila – entered convent very young –Not strict enough –Set up own order –Life of isolation, eating and sleeping very little –Canonized by the church

42 Widespread Persecution Witch hunts Jews forced to live in ghettoes Jews were forced to move and temples were burned

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