Presentation on theme: "A. A government leader should never have absolute authority. B. A government leader can exercise absolute authority if it will help advance a countrys."— Presentation transcript:
A. A government leader should never have absolute authority. B. A government leader can exercise absolute authority if it will help advance a countrys economy. C. A government leader can exercise absolute authority when a country is under attack. D. A government leader can exercise absolute authority whenever is advances a countrys interest.
Spain- The first modern European Power France-The world of the Sun King England-Civil War and the Rise of Parliament Austria and Prussia-The rise of the German states. Russia-From Middle Ages to Modern Times All I say is, Kings is Kings and you got to make allowances. -Mark Twain, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
King of Spain and the Hapsburg Empire(Holy Roman Empire) The most powerful man in Europe from 1516-1556. Fought against Protestantism in German states and the Muslim Ottoman Empire in the Balkans. The stress of these struggles caused him to divide up his empire in 1556. Spain- 29 year old Philip II Hapsburg Empire- brother Ferdinand
Ruled for 42 years and Spain dominated Europe. Workaholic, Strong Catholic, and lived more like a monk in his isolated, somber palace. Married a total of four times. Claimed Divine Right over his subjects and attacked Protestantism everywhere. Fought many wars in Europe against Muslims in the Mediterranean and Protestants in the Netherlands. Launched the Spanish Armada in 1588 against Elizabeth I of England.
Major Victory- Defeated the Ottoman empire fleet in 1571. Major Defeats- The loss of the Northern provinces of the Netherlands and the defeat of the Spanish Armada against England. The defeat of the Spanish Armada marked the beginning of decline for Spain after Philips death. Weak rulers, costly wars, and the neglect of farming and commerce were the causes. Final Thoughts: By the mid 1600s, others had surpassed Spain.
Why did France become the leading power in Europe during the Age of Absolutism?
From 1560s-1590s, religious wars between Catholics and Huguenots (French Protestants) tore France apart. In 1589, Henry IV became King. Edict of Nantes 1598: granted Huguenots( French protestants) religious toleration. Under Henry, France was rebuilt. Henry was killed by an assassin in 1610.
Louis XIII 1610-1643 Inherited a divided and violent France. Cardinal Richelieu (chief minister)-crushed the power of the nobles & Protestants and made Louis XIII the absolute monarch of a unified and peaceful France.
Face of The Age of Absolutism: Frances Louis XIV 1638-1715 The Sun King
5 year old inherited a powerful/unified France & made it a superpower. Ruled for 72 years, longest European reign in History. Cardinal Jules Mazarin appointed by Richelieu to be chief minister Louis XIV made France the center of wealth, power, culture, and intellectual study.
Palace of Versailles=most extravagant palace in Europe housed 10,000 people so Louis could directly control the lives of the feudal nobility War of Spanish Succession=Philip V, a grandson of Louis XIV, inherits the throne of Spain, so Louis XIV declares France & Spain united, but England goes to war to keep them separated to maintain a balance of power Louis XIVs luxury & wars put France in debt so taxes rose. Never consulted Estates General about spending of tax money.
1.Do you think Louis XIVs reign was good for France? Explain 2 paragraphs a piece of paper 2. Define terms on pg. 516 (all of them) for tomorrow as well.
Began developing Limited Monarchy since Magna Carta of 1215 & slowly moving toward democracy. Trade/Colonies with New World is making England rich. Island geography provides great defense from Spain & France & encourages a strong navy which will make Britain the world superpower until 1918. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CuRb6iPqLjA& feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CuRb6iPqLjA& feature=related
James I 1603-1625 Scottish Stuart dynasty inherits throne promoting Catholicism & Absolutism. Argued over Royal Power and the right to tax its subjects. James eventually gave in. Many Protestants flee to America to escape unpopular James. Charles I 1625-1649 Parliament demands that he had to sign Petition of Right (1628), which gives full power of taxes to Parliament Charles refuses to sign & dismisses Parliament(twice) so he can rule as an absolute monarch. Recalls Parliament in 1640 but problems led to Civil War from 1642- 1649 between Charles and Parliament. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xz1XORmNP2M
The Commonwealth 1649-1660 Parliament abolishes monarchy & Cromwell attempts to form republic. Charles I is executed in 1649 by Parliament. The Commonwealth rule was very strict and demanding on peoples lives. England was lost after having continuous kings since William (1066). The Restoration Parliament offers Charles II the throne to restore tradition. Shared his familys beliefs but avoided conflict with Parliament. James II Threatens return to Catholicism & Absolutism.
Parliament forced James II to flee to France in 1688. Parliament invites William & Mary to rule England. On the Condition that they sign the English Bill of Rights 1689. (They did) Permanently makes Parliament supreme authority of England. (Still is Today) Final Thoughts: Britain is the greatest power in the World until the 20 th Century.
Thirty Years War 1618-1648- Holy Roman Emperor with Spain/other Catholicism states vs. Protestant countries. Countries often switched sides for their own benefit. Peace of Westphalia 1648-ended the war. Result- 1.German states were ruined and divided. 2. France became strong. 3. The Holy Roman Empire focused its attention on its own lands (Austria)
The Hapsburg Family (Austria) created an empire that included many diverse peoples. These included Germans, Magyars, Slavs, etc. The German speaking peoples controlled the empire but Austria lacked a central government. Maria Theresa-1740-1780 Recognized the bureaucracy and tax collection. Fought Prussia during the War of the Austrian Succession. Final Thoughts: Strong European power in the 1700s- 1800s but very diverse(future issues).
Hohenzollern Prussia Emerged as a strong Protestant power. Frederick William I 1713-1740 Made the army one of the best in the World. Gained the loyalty of the Junkers(nobles). Frederick II the Great 1740-1786 Great military leader who fought Austria. Final Thoughts: Strong,Protestant, Militaristic, German state. (Plenty to come 4 th Quarter).
Russia- a Huge Medieval state that was always behind the rest of Europe. Untouched by the Renaissance and Reformation. Peter the Great 1682-1725 Became tsar in 1682 at age 10. Determined to make Russia like Western Europe. Left Russia in 1697 to learn Western Ways himself. Traveled everywhere and brought back many ideas to Russia
Upon his return, Peter embarked upon of policy of westernization: adoption of Western ideas, technology, and culture. To impose his will, Peter became the most autocratic of Europes absolute monarchs. He forced the Russian Orthodox Church and Boyars(nobles) to westernize or face punishment. Result- Russia was westernized by force within a few years.
Peters Wars and Russian Expansion: Wanted a Warm-Water Port for Russia. Failed during his reign. In 1700- began a long war with Sweden for the Baltic region. Won in 1709 and won territory along the Baltic Sea. Built the new capital city of St. Petersburg along this land in the Western European style. Expanded Russias borders to the Pacific Ocean. Legacy: Peter died in 1725. Made Russia an European Power but due to his stern nature. The Gap only widened between Russia and Western Europe.
Catherine the Great 1762-1796 German princess by birth who married into the Russian royal family at age 15. Took over in 1762 when her husband, Tsar Peter III was murdered by army officers. Catherine embraced Western ideas and was a follower of the Enlightenment. However, Catherine was ruthless and expanded Russias borders. (Took part in the Partition of Poland) Final Thoughts: Russia is a huge, formidable, but backward on technology and government. (More to come 4 th Quarter)