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World War I (The Great War) U.S. involvement

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1 World War I (The Great War) 1914 - 1918 1917 - 1918 U.S. involvement
Unit 9 World War I (The Great War) U.S. involvement

2 Imperialism When one country controls another country’s land, politics or economy with no intention of stopping – literally, establishing empires. Foreign policy debate Imperialism vs. Isolationism U.S. wants to be imperialistic U.S. wants to stay out of European problems Roosevelt Corollary U.S. would use its police power to control Western Hemisphere

3 Woodrow Wilson – 28th President of U.S.
2 terms: Democratic Party Domestic reform policies known as the “New Freedom”

4 Woodrow Wilson – 28th President of U.S.
Foreign policy known as “Missionary Diplomacy” Missionary of democracy Ethnocentric Everyone should be like U.S. Contradictory views Wilson said imperialism was immoral Not right to own other people/countries if they don’t want to be owned Wilson also thought U.S. interests needed to be protected

5 Woodrow Wilson – 28th President of U.S.
Foreign policy known as “Missionary Diplomacy” Wilson first used missionary diplomacy before WWI In Nicaragua, U.S. supported overthrow of its president & supported the new president In Mexico, U.S. helped overthrow a dictator

6 Europe Explodes Into War
Tensions in Europe Nationalism: pride in or devotion to one’s country Created rivalry & hostility between European nations Imperialism 1870–1914: Britain, France, Germany, Italy, & Russia scrambled for colonies in Africa, Asia, & the Pacific Each sought new markets & raw materials Militarism: policy of building up strong armed forces to prepare for war European nations expanded their armies & navies Glorification of the military

7 Europe Explodes Into War
Tensions in Europe Rival alliances (agreements between two or more countries to help each other if needed) Germany organized the Triple Alliance Included Austria-Hungary & Italy To protect Germany & isolate France France formed the Triple Entente Included Russia & Britain Allies agree to support one another in case of attack

8 Tensions in Europe Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Heir to the Austrian throne

9 Outbreak of War June 28, 1914: Archduke Franz Ferdinand & wife Sophie assassinated in Sarajevo (capital of Austria-Hungary province of Bosnia and Herzegovina)

10 Outbreak of War Archduke Ferdinand assassinated by Gavrilo Princip
Black Hand Terrorist group Wanted Bosnia to break free of Austria-Hungary Triggered World War I

11 Outbreak of War Alliances lead to war
Austria-Hungary accused Serbian government of murder & threatened war Russia moved to protect Serbia July 28, 1914: Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia Next day, Russia mobilized its forces Mobilize: prepare for war Germany told Russia to cancel mobilization Russia did not reply

12 Outbreak of War Alliances lead to war
July 28, 1914: Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia August 1, 1914: Germany declared war on Russia August 3, 1914: Germany declared war on France Schlieffen Plan (German, von Schlieffen) Attack France through Belgium if Russia attacked Germany When Germany marched through neutral Belgium on the way to France, Britain declared war on Germany Britain promised to defend Belgium if it were attacked

13 In time, 21 other countries, including Italy, joined the Allies
The “Great War” Begins Central Powers Germany Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire Allied Powers France Britain Russia In time, other countries, including Italy, joined the Allies

14 The “Great War” Begins Wilson wanted to remain neutral at first
Officially, the U.S. was neutral In 1914, 1/3 of U.S. citizens were immigrants or first generation 8 million Americans were German or Austrian descent Most Americans favored the Allies

15 The “Great War” Begins Profits – trade with Allies
1914: $825M 1916: $3.2B U.S. trade with Central Powers was miniscule U.S. also had millions in loans to the Allies

16 The “Great War” Begins As a neutral nation, U.S. wanted to trade with both sides Britain & Germany blockaded each other’s ports

17 The “Great War” Germans used U-boats (submarines) Submarine warfare
Attacked any ship that entered or left British ports

18 The “Great War” Begins Germany warned U.S. to keep ships out of blockade zone Wilson threatened to hold Germany responsible if German submarines caused Americans to die or lose property Germany ignored Wilson’s threat

19 The “Great War” Begins May 7, 1915 – sinking of Lusitania
German submarine torpedoed the Lusitania British passenger ship Off coast of Ireland Nearly 1,200 people died, including 128 Americans

20 The “Great War” Begins Wilson called it “murder on the high seas.”
Threatened to break off diplomatic relations if Germany did not stop sinking passenger ships Germany did not want to risk war with U.S. Germany apologized for sinking ships with Americans on board Germany agreed to stop attacking neutral ships without warning

21 The Road to War Despite his devotion to peace, Pres. Wilson saw the need to be prepared in case war could not be avoided He called for a stronger army & navy He tried to bring the Central and Allied powers together for peace talks, but failed

22 The Road to War Election of 1916 Woodrow Wilson ran for reelection
Campaign slogan: “He kept us out of war!” Narrow victory To look more progressive just before the election: Gave low cost loans to farmers Signed the Child Labor Act (under pressure) Supported 8 hour work day for railroad workers Republican candidate Charles Evans Hughes Supreme Court Justice former Gov. of New York

23 The Road to War After 1916 election Wilson again pressed for peace
January 1917, calls on warring powers to accept “peace without victory”

24 The Road to War Germany warned neutral nations
After Feb. 1, 1917, would sink any ship nearing Britain Renewed unrestricted submarine warfare To break Allied blockade Risked bringing U.S. into war Germany gambled they could beat the Allies before American troops could reach Europe Pres. Wilson cut diplomatic relations with Germany

25 The Road to War Zimmermann telegram
Secret note from Germany’s foreign secretary, Arthur Zimmermann, to German minister in Mexico Gave instructions to German minister Urge Mexico to attack U.S. if U.S. declared war on Germany In return, Germany would help Mexico win back “lost provinces” in American Southwest Land in Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas (land lost after Mexican War) Anti-German feeling soared in Americans

26 Zimmermann Telegram

27 The Road to War Early 1917 German submarines sank several American merchant ships Revolution in Russia drove Czar Nicholas II from power Poor conditions on war front and at home because of food shortage Russia signed a peace treaty with Germany and withdrew from WWI

28 The Road to War April 2, 1917 Pres. Wilson asked Congress to declare war Congress voted for war, 455 to 56 Jeannette Rankin of Montana First woman elected to congress Voted no

29 The Road to War April 6, 1917 Pres. Wilson signed declaration of war
Next day, George M. Cohan wrote a song, “Over There” Patriot’s tune -- lines expressed American confidence

30 “Over There” Johnnie, get your gun, Get your gun, get your gun, Take it on the run, On the run, on the run. Hear them calling, you and me, Every son of liberty. Hurry right away, No delay, go today, Make your daddy glad To have had such a lad. Tell your sweetheart not to pine, To be proud her boy's in line. (chorus sung twice) Johnnie, get your gun, Get your gun, get your gun, Johnnie show the Hun Who's a son of a gun. Hoist the flag and let her fly, Yankee Doodle do or die. Pack your little kit, Show your grit, do your bit. Yankee to the ranks, From the towns and the tanks. Make your mother proud of you, And the old Red, White and Blue. (chorus sung twice) Chorus Over there, over there, Send the word, send the word over there - That the Yanks are coming, The Yanks are coming, The drums rum-tumming Ev'rywhere. So prepare, say a pray'r, Send the word, send the word to beware. We'll be over, we're coming over, And we won't come back till it's over Over there.

31 The Great War U.S. needed an army to fight May 18, 1917
Congress passed the Selective Service Act Required all young men ages to register for military draft In next 18 months, 4 million men & women joined armed forces People from every ethnic group enlisted Puerto Ricans, Filipinos, recently arrived immigrants, Native Americans Women served as radio operators, clerks, & stenographers

32 The Great War Men drilled for combat
Not enough weapons at training camps Trained using broomsticks for guns At first, African Americans were not allowed in combat When government changed the rules, >2M registered for draft Segregated “black-only” units commanded by white officers Many thought the war seemed like a great adventure

33 The Yanks are coming!

34

35 The Great War Food for victory
Pres. Wilson chose Herbert Hoover to head Food Administration Boost food production Feed troops Help Allies Farmers grew more crops Families planted “victory gardens”

36 The Great War Foreign policy known as “Missionary Diplomacy”
Missionary of democracy Ethnocentric Everyone should be like U.S. Pres. Wilson entered WWI to “make the world safe for democracy”

37 The Great War Factories & labor
Government told factories what they had to produce Factories began producing more Short supply of workers Women began working Unions won better pay & working conditions No one wanted a strike

38 The Great War Americans supported war effort with their savings
Millions bought Liberty Bonds Lending money to the government to pay for war Government raised $21B

39 The Great War During WWI, almost a half million African Americans left the South & moved to cities in North Escaped poverty & discrimination Found better paying jobs in war industries Competition for housing & jobs led to race riots 1917: 39 African Americans killed during riot East St. Louis, IL Immigrants from Mexico Almost 100,000 came to work on farms & in factories Were welcomed by Americans & made important contribution But after war, U.S. tried to force them to return to Mexico

40 The Great War Critics of war
Believed war benefited wealthy owners & not workers Pacifists refused to fight in any war Congress pass laws making it a crime to criticize government or interfere with the war Nearly 1,600 men & women arrested for breaking laws Although laws violated Constitution’s guarantee of freedom of speech, most felt the laws were necessary in wartime

41 The Great War Propaganda: false or misleading information used to sway public opinion France and Great Britain twisted the war into a fight against democratic powers versus evil absolute monarchies By June 1918, Americans were reaching France in record numbers Commanded by Gen. John J. Pershing U.S. wanted a major role in shaping peace To do so, would need a “definite and distinct part” during the war

42 369th Infantry Regiment – “Harlem Hell Fighters”
On front lines, attached to French army Spent more time under fire than any other American unit during WWI French respected their bravery Most African Americans served in support roles Laborers, cargo handlers, waiters

43 Campaign to Victory In 1917, the United States declared war on Germany
4 In 1917, the United States declared war on Germany By 1918, about two million American soldiers had joined the Allies on the Western Front The Germans launched a huge offensive, pushing the Allies back The Allies launched a counteroffensive, driving German forces back across France and Germany

44 Campaign to Victory 4 Germany sought an armistice with the Allies based on Wilson’s Fourteen Points, but France and Britain dictated the harsh terms of the armistice – a halt in fighting, allowing peace talks to begin The other Central Powers also asked for an armistice At 11 am, on November 11, 1918, the war ended

45 Campaign to Victory President Wilson insisted that Kaiser Wilhelm II (absolute monarch of Germany) must step down On Nov. 9, 1918, Wilhelm II fled to Holland and gave up the throne Germany became a republic after the war

46 Wilson’s Fourteen Points
President Woodrow Wilson issued the Fourteen Points, a list of his terms for resolving World War I and future wars. He called for: freedom of the seas free trade large-scale reductions of arms an end to secret treaties self-determination, or the right of people to choose their own form of government, for Eastern Europe the creation of a “general association of nations” to keep the peace in the future

47 The Paris Peace Conference
5 The delegates to the Paris Peace Conference faced many difficult issues: The Big Four: Woodrow Wilson (U.S.) David Lloyd George (Great Britain) Georges Clemenceau (France) Vittorio Orlando (Italy)

48 The Paris Peace Conference
5 The delegates to the Paris Peace Conference faced many difficult issues: Great Britain and France wanted to punish the Central Powers Created the Treaty of Versailles Created the League of Nations Weak & ineffectual 60 nations join Not the U.S.

49 The Treaty of Versailles
5 The Treaty: Forced Germany to assume full blame for causing the war Imposed huge reparations upon Germany – Payments to cover war damages The Treaty aimed at weakening Germany by: Limited the size of the German military to 100,000 total No tanks, heavy artillery, airplanes, submarines, or draft Germany must return Alsace and Lorraine to France Removed hundreds of miles of territory from Germany Stripped Germany of its overseas colonies

50 The Treaty of Versailles
5 The treaty also chopped up and created new countries The Germans signed the treaty because they had no choice German resentment of the Treaty of Versailles would poison the international climate for 20 years and lead to an even deadlier world war

51 Casualties of World War I
5 Deaths Wounded in Battle in Battle Allied Powers France 1,357,800 4,266,000 British Empire ,371 2,090,212 Russia 1,700,000 4,950,000 Italy , ,886 United States , ,690 Others , ,585 Central Powers Germany 1,808,546 4,247,143 Austria-Hungary ,500 3,620,000 Ottoman Empire , ,000

52 Europe in 1914 & 1920 1914 1920


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