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Instrucciones VERB ADJECTIVE NOUN

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1 Instrucciones VERB ADJECTIVE NOUN
‘Verbos’ is a presentation designed to get you thinking about your reading exam. It will help you to learn 50 common verbs used in Spanish. It’s not just about 50 verbs though; it also includes other types of words that are related to the verbs. For example look at the 3 words below. We have a verb, adjective and noun all linked to each other. (seguir – to follow / siguiente – following / seguidores – followers) VERB ADJECTIVE NOUN Learning 50 verbs will help you in your exams but learning how to use patterns and intuition from what you already know is a powerful linguistic tool. At the end there is a section for cognate verbs as well!!! Move on to next screen to begin. I do not own Lady Gaga

2 Verbos Please enter ‘slide-show view’ to begin and click a number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 COGNATES

3 1. Seguir – to follow / to continue
Main menu ADJECTIVE Can you see how there are verbs, adjectives and nouns linked here? Try to see the patterns and distinguish the different types of word linked by a meaning. El caracol sigue la tortuga El día siguiente The snail follows the tortoise The following day VERB Si sigues comiendo comida basura, vas a engordarte Sigue todo recto If you continue eating junk food, you’ll get big Carry straight on NOUN Tienes que seguir este curso de medicina Los seguidores del cristianismo leen la biblia You have to follow this course of medicine The followers of christianity read the bible

4 2. Pedir – to ask for / to order
Main menu ¿Qué vas a pedir en el restaurante? What are you going to order in the restaurant? Hoy hice un pedido de un nuevo ordenador Today I made an order for a new computer Sometimes you don’t recognise a verb because the spellings are different from tense to tense. Try to recognise the consonants and then think about verbs you know with these consonants ...p..d = poder /pedir Pidió la mano de su novia He asked for his girlfriend’s hand (in marriage)

5 I’m looking for the beach
3. Buscar – to look for/to search Main menu La policía busca a un ladrón con gafas The police are looking for a thief with a glasses See how sometimes you recognise a verb in a phrase. Fui a la biblioteca en busca de un libro sobre arte I went to the library in search of a book about art Busco la playa I’m looking for the beach Also, you can see that sometimes Spanish uses 1 word to express 2, 3 or 4 English words. ‘Busco’ = I’m looking for

6 4a. Sonreír – to smile / 4b. Reírse – to laugh
Main menu Sonríe y el mundo sonreirá contigo Smile and the world will smile with you El mensaje me hizo reír mucho The message made me laugh a lot Try to associate these two verbs with each other as they are very close in meaning. Some people think of special ways to remember which is which: the ‘sun’ smiles at you (but doesn’t normally laugh) so ‘sonreír’ = to smile. Tiene una risa contagiosa Su sonrisa es un poco espantosa She has a contagious laugh His smile is a bit scary

7 5. Elegir/Escoger – to choose
Main menu Es difícil elegir entre los dos candidatos It’s difficult to choose between the 2 candidates Tendrás que escoger la puerta correcta You’ll have to choose the correct door Sometimes you come across words which are cognates but would not be translated by their English equivalent. ‘Elección’ looks like ‘election’ but if you look more carefully at the sentence then a better translation would be the word ‘choice’ Fue una prueba de elección multiple It was a multi-choice test

8 6. Aumentar/Subir – to raise/to go up/to increase
Main menu Me gustaría aumentar de peso I would like to increase my weight La temperatura aumentará a 30 grados este verano The temperature will rise to 30˚ this summer La subida se hace a pie – No hay funicular The climb is made on foot – There is no cable car Sometimes verbs are used to make nouns like the example here. You can guess what they mean by putting the words together. Espantar = to scare Pájaros = birds Un espantapájaros = A scarecrow Hay un subibaja en el jardín There is a seesaw in the garden

9 7. Gastar – to spend Gasté mi dinero en un concierto de JLS
Main menu Gasté mi dinero en un concierto de JLS I spent my money on a JLS concert El presidente no controla los gastos de su mujer The president doesn’t control his wife’s spending No quiero malgastar mi tiempo con planchar la ropa I don’t want to waste my time with ironing the clothes If you know ‘mal’ means ‘bad’ then you should be able to guess that it gives a negative meaning to a word ...gastar – spend malgastar – waste ...educado – polite maleducado - rude

10 8. Saber – to know (something)
Main menu Sé que Juan no sabe nadar I know that Juan doesn’t know how to swim La profesora es una persona muy sabia Be aware that many times there are words like ‘sé – i know’ that look nothing like their infinitives ... ‘saber – to know’. The teacher is a very knowledgeable person Don’t be tempted to make bad judgments on a sentence’s meaning just because you think you know a word. ‘Saber ‘ means ‘to know’ but ‘Saber a’ means ‘to taste of’ It would be a bad judgment to think the sentence below means ‘The ice cream knows the strawberry’! Odio a Marco – es un sabelotodo I hate Marco – he’s a know-it-all El helado sabe a fresa* The ice cream tastes of strawberries*

11 9. Conocer – to know (someone) / to meet
Main menu Nos conocimos en Las Vegas Italia es un país conocido por su comida We met in Las Vegas Italy is a country known for its food Conozco al jefe del tribú Tengo algunos conocimientos de la cultura japonesa I know the chief of the tribe I have some knowledge of japonese culture Sometimes verbs are used with a reflexive pronoun ‘nos’ to translate the idea of ‘each other’. For example ‘Nos vemos’ – ‘We see each other’ ‘Nos conocemos’ – We meet each other / We know each other

12 10. Dar – to give Dale las llaves a Pedro
Main menu Dale las llaves a Pedro Doy un paseo por el parque cada día Give the keys to Pedro I go for a walk around the park every day Las noticias me dieron mucha pena The news made me very sad Su padre le dio un reloj para su cumpleaños His father gave him a watch for his birthday Sometimes verbs are used for literally thousands of phrases. Unfortunately the verb ‘dar’ sometimes does not translate as ‘to give’ in some of these phrases. ‘Dar mucha pena’ literally means ‘to give lots of pain’ (to make someone sad)

13 11. Pasar – to spend (time)/to pass / to happen
Main menu ¿Qué pasa? What’s happening? Para llegar al aeropuerto, tienes que pasar por el estadio To get to the airport, you have to pass by the stadium ‘Pasar’ is a verb with lots and lots of meanings in Spanish as well as English. Always try to decide which definition makes the best sense. ‘¿Me pasas las patatas por favor?’ ‘Will you pass me the potatoes please?’ Voy a pasar un año estudiando en China La semana pasada había manifesticaciones I’m going to spend a year in China Last week there were demonstrations

14 12. Encontrar – to find / to meet
Main menu Bla bla bla No puedo encontrar mi pasaporte Le encuentro un poco hablador I can’t find my passport I find him a little chatty Often verbs are reflexive which means you add ‘myself, yourself etc to the meaning. Here it has the meaning of ‘I found myself a bit dizzy’ It’s not exactly how we’d say it but it makes sense. The smallest words can help you figure out meaning: Le = him/her (me = me... te = you... nos = us) Encuentro un poco hablador??? I find a bit chatty X Le encuentro un poco hablador – I find him a bit chatty √ Me encontré un poco mareado El teatro se encuentra en las afueras del pueblo I felt a bit dizzy The theatre is found on the outskirts of town

15 13. Pagar – to pay Some verbs in Spanish would be 2 words in English:
Main menu ¿Es posible pagar en metálico? Is it possible to pay in cash? Para reservar los billetes necesitamos un pago adelantado To reserve the tickets, we need payment in advance Some verbs in Spanish would be 2 words in English: ‘pagar’ = to pay for ‘buscar’ = to look for Try to take the words in a sentence and make sense of them ‘ My parents me pay the studies’ My parents pay for my studies Mis padres me pagan los estudios My parents pay for my studies

16 14. Ayudar – to help Main menu Las ayudantes del mago se cortan en dos. The magician’s helpers are cut in two Ayudaba en la cocina antes del accidente con el pastel I used to help in the kitchen before the accident with the cake Make sure you pick up on the word ‘de’ in the exam. It shows you what belongs to what: El primer día del verano – The first day of summer Música de todos los estilos – Music of all styles Los conductores de Madrid – Drivers from Madrid Necesito tu ayuda con este proyecto I need your help with this project

17 15. Conseguir – to achieve / to get
Main menu El director consiguió un gran éxito The director achieved great success Es importante conseguir la diagnosis apropiada temprano It’s important to get the correct diagnosis early Be aware that there are many ‘false friends’ in Spanish (words that appear to be cognates but mean something completely different) E.G éxito = success actual = current sensible = sensitive avisar = to warn No vas a conseguir el respeto si gritas You’re not going to get respect if you shout

18 16. Poder – to be able to (can)
Main menu Aqui no se puede fumar You can’t smoke here La viuda no pudo creer lo que oyó The widow couldn’t believe what she heard Verbs like poder are so common that it will probably appear 9-10 times in a reading exam. You must know its different uses: (se puede – you can) (podrías – you could) and particularly its noun and adjective forms: (poder – power) (poderoso) powerful. Ha comprado una moto muy poderosa Tenemos el poder de salvar el medio ambiente He has bought a very powerful motorbike We have the power to save the environment

19 17. Esperar 1 – To hope Main menu Hay esperanza que la cumbre producirá una solución Espero que no llueva There is hope that the conference will produce a solution I hope that it doesn’t rain When you use ‘se’ + a verb, it becomes passive. This means it translates as ‘It is + verb’ Confused ??? Ok Here are some examples: 1.Esperar = to hope & Se espera = It is hoped 2. Decir = To say & Se dice = It is said + Se dijo = It was said 3. Llamar = To call & Se llama = It is called 4. Conseguir = To achieve & Se consigue = It is achieved Se espera que los huelguistas vuelvan en dos días ¿Juan tiene el anillo?...Espero que sí It is hoped that the strikers will return in two days Does Juan have the ring?...I hope so

20 18. Esperar 2 – to wait Main menu Llevo dos horas esperando el autobús El gato se apostó en espera de un ratón I’ve been waiting 2 hours for the bus The cat sat down in expectation of a mouse Esperar can mean ‘to wait’, ‘to hope’ or ‘to expect’. The exam will probably include this verb to test that you know these different meanings. Use your common sense to work out which meaning the verb has. e.g Espero que venga Juan – I hope Juan comes Espero a Juan – I’m waiting for Juan La madre y su niña están en la sala de espera The mother and her child are in the waiting room

21 19. Vivir – to live Main menu Vivía en Australia pero ahora vivo en Dinamarca No quedó nadie vivo en esta obra I used to live in Australia but now i live in Denmark Nobody was left alive in this play To test your ability to understand written language, the examiner will replace common words like ‘casa’ or ‘hogar’ with words like ‘vivienda’ to mean house/home. Don’t be put off by this. Use your head and any language you previously learnt to help yourself out. Puerta = Door Salida = Exit (from salir – to go out) Comida = Food Cena = Dinner (from cenar – to eat dinner) Van a construir un bloque de 50 viviendas Fue una fiesta muy viva They are going to make a block of 50 homes It was a very lively party

22 20. Volver – to return / to go back
Main menu A la vuelta paramos para gasolina Dieron una vuelta por el parque On the return journey we stopped for petrol They took a turn around the park Think about the verb ‘volver a’ It would literally translate as ‘to return to’ but it is used to mean ‘to do something again’ or ‘to go back to doing something’. Volver a empezar = to start again Volver a ocurrir = to happen again Volvió a su casa Ha vuelto a tomar drogas She started to take drugs again He returned home

23 21. Casarse – to get married
Main menu Me caso mañana en la iglesia I’m getting married tomorrow in church Nos casamos hace cincuenta años We got married 50 years ago Remember that some verbs are reflexive so in the infinitive they have ‘se’ at the end. Casarse – to get married Lavarse – to have a wash This changes according to who is performing the action Quiero casarme – I want to get married ¿Quieres casarte? – Do you want to get married? Los novios quieren casarse en Dubai The bride and groom want to marry in Dubai

24 22. Viajar – to travel Main menu Los viajeros siempre van a la torre Eiffel El viaje de vuelta era un poco picado The return journey was a bit choppy Travellers always go to the Eiffel Tower The endings ‘eros’ ‘antes’ & ‘ores’ are usually added to a verb to make a noun for people who perform the verb... 1 (viajar = to travel + viajero = traveller) (Obrar = to work + obrero = worker) 2 (caminar = to walk + caminante = hiker) (ayudar = to help + ayudante = helper) 3 ( jugar = to play + Jugadores = Players) (fumar = to smoke + fumador = smoker) Viajé en coche desde Londres a Leeds I travelled by car from London to Leeds

25 23. Cuidar – to take care of Main menu Pone mucho cuidado en su higiene Tengo que cuidar de mi hermano menor She takes lots of care over her hygiene I have to take care of my little brother Again take notice that there are 3 different types of word here: noun, adjective and verb. We could also add ‘cuidadosamente’ = ‘carefully’ La funámbula es muy cuidadosa Debes cuidar la ortografía The tight-rope walker is very careful You need to take care over your spelling

26 24. Hacer – to do/to make Main menu Me hizo llorar Hago los deberes en la biblioteca He made me cry I do my homework in the library Hacer is a very common verb so be aware that it has lots of meanings but generally these are ‘to do’ or ‘to make’ . Try to bear this in my mind when deciding what sentences mean. ‘Hacer una llamada’ – To make a call ‘Hacer bien en algo’ – ‘To do well’ Pasaremos la clase haciendo investigaciones Tengo que hacer la cama todas las mañanas We will spend the class doing investigations I have to make my bed every morning

27 25. Ponerse/Hacerse – to become
Main menu Se hicieron amigos durante el verano Se hizo millionario con su empresa They became friends during summer He became a millionaire with his business Sometimes the reflexives verbs have very different meanings from the non-reflexive versions. Hacer = to do/make Hacerse = to become Poner = to put Ponerse = to become producir = to produce producirse = to take place Se puso enfadada con el servicio Si te pones triste, llámame a mi casa He got angry with the service If you get sad, call my house

28 26. Preguntar – to ask Main menu Me hicieron varias preguntas en la entrevista They asked me lots of questions in the interview Remember that reflexive verbs generally mean doing something to yourself... Lavo – I wash Me lavo – I wash myself Pregunto – I ask Me pregunto – I ask myself (I wonder) Me pregunto si el cartero ha venido I wonder if the postman has come Le pregunté por su madre I asked after his mother

29 27a. Cerrar – to close 27b. Abrir – to open
Main menu Creo que la tienda está abierta el lunes Cierra la boca ahora! Close your mouth now! I think that the shop is open on Monday Verbs sometimes have past participles which become adjectives: (Abrir – open Abierta- opened) (Cerrar – close Cerrado – closed) This is the normal pattern... Tomar = Tomado-taken Comer = Comido – eaten Visitar = Visitado-visited dañar = dañado - damaged Señor Fernández es muy cerrado – No dice mucho Ábreme la puerta por favor Mr Fernández is very closed – He doesn’t say much Open the door please

30 28a. Llegar – to arrive 28b. Salir – to leave
Main menu Llegadas Salidas Siempre llega tarde Arrivals Departures He always arrives late Try to remember verbs of opposite pairs (llegar & salir) Other pairs include (1. abrir-open & cerrar-close) (2. ganar-win & perder-lose) (3. empezar-start & acabar-finish) (4. aparecer-appear & desaparecer-disappear) Me llegó el fax por la mañana El jefe había salido de viaje con su esposa The fax got to me in the morning The boss had left on holiday with his wife

31 29a. Empezar – to start 29b.Acabar – to finish
Main menu La chica acabó ganando el premio Voy a acabar con este ordenador inútil con mi hacha The girl ended up winning the prize I’m going to finish off this useless computer with my axe In the first exercise we have the word ‘ganando’ which means ‘winning’ This is called a ‘gerund’ and there is a pattern for recognising them. They translate as verb+ing in English -ar verbs (tomando = talking) (empezando = starting) -er&-ir verbs (comiendo = eating) (viviendo = viving) Para empezar voy a tomar el pescado Ha empezado a nevar To start with i’ll have the fish It has started to snow

32 30. Cambiar – to change Main menu El mecánico me cambió el neumático Quiero cambiar 100 dólares en euros The mechanic changed my tyre I want to change 100 dollars into euros Cambiar is a really important verb to know as it appears frequently in the exam. Try to focus on learning verbs like cambiar which aren’t cognates – the more of these you know, the less chance there is of you coming across vocabulary you don’t understand. Habrá muchos cambios en este departamento Estamos cambiando los muebles There will be lots of changes in this department We are changing the furniture

33 31. Llevar – to wear/to carry/to take
Main menu Mi padre nos llevó a cenar Me encanta el perfume que llevas My father took us out to dinner I love the perfume you’re wearing The verb ‘llevar’ has lots of translations in English; however in Spanish it means literally ‘to take with you’. This could mean carrying something, wearing something, giving someone a lift etc. The final example is more difficult to understand: it is used to suggest an amount of time that has already gone ‘llevo una hora esperando’ – ‘I’ve been waiting an hour’ ‘llevamos dos años juntos’ – ‘We’ve been together for 2 years’ Llevaba a la niña en sus brazos El avión lleva una hora de retraso He was carrying the girl in his arms The plane is an hour late

34 32. Creer – to believe Main menu Se cree que el incendio fue provocado It is thought that the fire was started deliberately Pronouns like ‘lo’ and ‘la’ refer back to something already mentioned (masc or fem) ‘los’ and ‘las’ = plural When you find them in reading exams, try to figure out what they are being used for. Me gustan los taxis – los uso todos los días I like taxis – I use them every day No puedo apoyar un partido con creencias racistas I can’t support a party with racist beliefs Trescientas libras para un empaste! No lo puedo creer! 300 pounds for a filling! I can’t believe it

35 33. Parecer – to seem/to appear
Main menu Pareces una reina en ese vestido Parece mentira que tenga 60 años You look like a queen in that dress It seems false that she’s 60 years old Parecer is often used in opinion phrases to replace more common verbs like (pensar, ser and creer) Instead of saying ‘Creo que está equivocado’ ‘I think he is wrong’ they may write ‘me parece que está equivocado’ ‘It seems to me he is wrong’ Or in other opinion phrases ‘¿Qué te parecen las flores?’ ‘What do you think of the flowers? El padre y su hijo son muy parecidos ¿Vamos a la discoteca?, ¿Qué te parece? The father and his son are very similar Shall we go to the disco, what do you think?

36 34. Hay que – You must Everyone knows ‘Hay’ = ‘there is/there are’
Main menu Everyone knows ‘Hay’ = ‘there is/there are’ Good students know ‘Había’ = ‘There was’ ‘Habrá’ = ‘There will be’ A student wanting to get A/A* needs to know ‘Hay que’ = ‘You must’ ‘Había que’ = ‘You had to’ ‘Habrá que’ = ‘You will have to’ Try to know verbs in more than one tense; especially those as common as ‘hay’ Hay que seguir una dieta equilibrada You have to follow a balanced diet No había que ser genio para entender a Einstein You didn’t have to be a genius to understand Einstein Habrá que cruzar el desierto You will have to cross the desert

37 35. Sentir(se) – to feel Main menu Me siento avergonzado Lo siento mucho – rompí tu bicicleta I feel embarrassed I’m really sorry – I broke your bike Make sure you know set phrases like ‘lo siento’ for ‘I’m sorry’ and also remember that ‘sentir’ can be used to substitute for verbs like ‘estar’ and ‘tener’ when used to talk about feelings... Estoy alegre/ Me siento alegre – I am happy Tenía sed / Me sentía sed – I was thirsty Sentía hambre cuando salí del gimnasio No me hables, me has herido los sentimientos I felt hungry when i came out of the gym Don’t speak to me, you’ve hurt my feelings

38 36. Querer – to want / to love
Main menu ¿Cuánto quieres por el coche? Te quiero mucho mi amor How much do you want for the car? I love you lots my darling Querer is another very common verb, you have probably come across it in ‘quisiera’ ‘i would like’ or ‘cuando quiera’ ‘whenever’ ‘Sin + a verb’ is another common phrase type in Spanish.... Sin querer (without wanting to) Sin pensar (without thinking) Sin pagar (without paying) El chico no quiso comer nada Lo dije totalmente sin querer I said it totally by accident The boy didn’t want to eat anything

39 37. Deber – to have to (must)
Main menu Debemos reciclar para salvar el medio ambiente Se debe comer más fruta para estar sana We must recycle to save the environment You must eat more fruit to be healthy Deber is another very common verb used in many different ways. You’ve probably come across ‘deberías’ -‘you should’ ‘debido a’ -‘owing to’ ‘se debe’ - ‘you must’ Try to remember the nouns ‘deber’ – ‘duty’ and ‘deberes’ – ‘homework’ Also the verb can mean ‘to owe’ ... ‘Me deben dos’ – ‘They owe me 2’ Los deberes son muy importantes Para un soldado, ir a la guerra es su deber Homework is very important For a soldier, going to war is a duty

40 38a. Nacerse– to be born 38b. Morir - to die
Main menu Me muero de frío I’m freezing to death Al nacer fue llamado por su padre At birth he was named after his father The sentence al+verb gives the idea of ‘upon doing’ or ‘on doing’ For example ‘al salir’ = ‘upon leaving’ ‘al darse cuenta de’ = ‘on realising’ Mi fecha de nacimiento es el dos de junio 1978 La muerte de César es una escena famosa My date of birth is the 2nd June 1978 The death of Caesar is a famous scene

41 39. Decir – to say Main menu ¿Cómo se dice ‘tren’ en ruso? Voy a decirle a Patricia que es mi novio How do you say ‘train’ in Russian? I’m going to tell Patricia that he’s my boyfriend Decir can mean ‘to tell’ or ‘to say’. Both are extremely common in exams. The adjective ‘dicho’ meaning ‘said’ is used the same way in English to describe something already mentioned... ’Dicho hombre trabaja aquí’ ‘Said man works here’ (man already mentioned) ‘En dichas ciudades’ ‘In said cities’ (in the cities already mentioned) Juan dijo que va a hacer sol hoy Dicho documento es totalmente secreto Juan said it’s going to be sunny today Said document is totally secret

42 40. Enseñar – to teach / Aprender – to learn
Main menu Le enseñaron a nadar a los seis años They taught him to swim at 6 years old He aprendido el alfabeto árabe de memoria I’ve learnt the arabic alphabet by heart Mi hermana enseña inglés en la universidad My sister teaches English at the university Again, try to link nouns to verbs... Aprendizaje – learning Enseñanza – teaching sabiduría – knowledge/wisdom Su capacidad de aprendizaje es increíble His ability to learn is incredible

43 41. Mejorar – to improve Main menu El tratamiento la mejoró Es mejor futbolista que su hermano The treatment made her better He is a better footballer than his brother You must be careful with words like ‘mejor’ and ‘peor’ . On their own they mean ‘better’ and ‘worse’; however ‘el mejor’ and ‘la mejor’ mean ‘the best’ and ‘the worst’. Es la mejor violinista de su generación She is the best violinist of her generation

44 42. Empeorar – to get worse Main menu The phrase cada vez + adjective is used to express the idea of something getting ‘worse and worse’ or ‘more and more silly’. For example ‘Cada vez mejor’ -‘Better and better’ ‘Cada vez menos sensible’ – ‘Less and less sensitive’ La situación es cada vez peor en los hospitales The situation in hospitals is worse and worse El tiempo empeoró durante la noche The weather got worse during the night

45 43. Desarrollar – to develop
Main menu Sometimes a noun linked to a verb can be used to make a phrase: ‘Desarrollo’ = ‘development’ ‘En desarrollo’ = In development’ or ‘developing’ Han desarrollado un nuevo tipo de móvil They’ve developed a new type of mobile Inglaterra es un país desarrollado pero Nigeria es un país en desarollo England is a developed country but Nigeria is a developing country El deporte me permite desarrollar mi aspecto físico Sport lets me develop my physical appearance

46 44. Dejar – to leave Main menu Dejé mi maleta en el aeropuerto Quiero dejar de fumar porque es caro I left my suitcase in the airport I want to give up smoking because its expensive Dejar is used in many different meanings ‘to leave’, ‘to let’ ‘to lend’ ‘to stop’ You need to understand the general idea of it meaning ‘to leave something behind’; even when this is a habit or an action (like smoking) ¿Me dejas tu collar? Dejaron incompletas las nuevas casas They left the new houses unfinished Will you lend me your necklace?

47 45. Perder – to lose / to miss
Main menu Nunca pierdo un episodio de mi telenovela favorita Estamos totalmente perdidos I never miss an episode of my favourite soap We’re totally lost Often verbs are converted to adjectives by a change in spelling.... Perder = Perdido-lost Entender = Entendido-understood These can be used with ‘estar’ to be... Mi madre está herida – My mother is injured El perrito está desarrollado – The puppy is developed (grown up) Los gemelos son malos perdedores Comprar una moto es una pérdida de dinero The twins are bad losers Buying a motorbike is a waste of money

48 46. Olvidar – to forget Main menu We’ve seen a few adjectives coming from verbs. ‘Olvidadizo’ is an example of this. Poder – Poderoso = Powerful Cambiar – Cambiante = Changing Es un chico muy olvidadizo He’s a forgetful boy Olvidé meter la ropa en la lavadora I forgot to put the clothes in the washer La cantante cayó en el olvido después de dos álbumes The singer fell into obscurity/was forgotten after two albums

49 47. Herir – to injure Main menu Tiene una herida bastante grave después de una caída He has quite a serious injury after a fall Try not to ignore the word ‘que’ as it may give a lot of information about the word it follows. It generally means ‘who’ or ‘that’ E.g ‘El hombre que recibió el premio era sueco’ ‘The man who received the prize was Swedish’ No puede jugar – está herida She can’t play – she’s injured El hombre que hirió a la víctima ha recibido un castigo de tres años The man who injured the victim has received a 3 year sentence

50 48. Sacar – to take out Main menu Me sacaron sangre como prueba Por favor, no saques la lengua They took some blood as a test Please, don’t stick your tongue out Some words are combinations of nouns and verbs like the two examples below. There are quite a few examples of these in Spanish. Matamoscas = Fly swatter Sacamuelas = dentist (slang) Quiero un sacapuntas ¿Me buscas un sacacorchos? I want a pencil sharpener Will you find me a corkscrew?

51 49. Entender– to understand
Main menu Apart from ‘no’ there are many words which are used to make sentences negative in Spanish. jamás / nunca = never nadie = nobody nada = nothing jamás doesn’t begin with n so people sometimes forget its meaning!! No entiendo por qué no quieres saltar I don’t understand why you won’t jump Se entienden por señas They communicate to each other by sign language Según tengo entendido, quieres un préstamo de £5000 As i understand it you want a loan of £5000

52 50. Leer – to read Main menu Me encanta leer / Me encanta la lectura Mi madre sabe leer los labios I love to read / I love reading My mum knows how to lip-read Remember that adjectives usually come after the noun in Spanish so it’s important to read (and take notice of) the entire sentence. If you were asked in an exam to say whether the woman in the 4th example likes clothes, you would’ve needed to notice she was a reading ‘una revista de moda’ not just ‘una revista’. Los lectores del periódico estarán chocados Estaba leyendo una revista de moda The newspaper readers will be shocked I was reading a fashion magazine

53 COGNATES Underneath is a list of cognates you will come across while learning Spanish. Practice flick in corner...click to start frustar –to frustrate desaparecer – to disappear acompañar – to accompany apresurarse – to pressurise contentar – to make happy decidir – to decide funcionar – to function / work desear – to desire discutir – to discuss encontrar – to encounter / find entrar – to enter escapar – to escape intentar – to try / intend interesarse – to be interested in invitar – to invite merecer – to merit / deserve perdonar – to pardon / forgive terminar – to end tocar – to touch adorar – to adore/to love comentar – to comment/say estudiar – to study explicar – to explain contestar – to reply detener – to detain / to arrest usar – to use visitar – to visit aparcar – to park reflejar – to reflect relajar – to relax deprimir – to depress oprimir – to oppress impresionar – to impress ascender – to ascend/ go up descender – to descend /go down cubrir – to cover descubrir – to discover describir – to describe guardar – to guard/to keep salvar –to save dañar – to damage prohibir – to prohibit/ ban recibir – to receive sufrir – to suffer seleccionar – to select mover – to move iniciar – to initiate/start construir –to construct destruir – to destruct durar – to last emplear – to employ fabricar – to make formar – to form informar – to inform liberar – to free notar – to note ocupar – to occupy ocuparse – to occupy yourself preferir – to prefer presentar –to present resolver – to resolve concluir – to conclude armar – to arm incluir – to include activar –to activate animar – to animate/encourage progresar – to progress repetir – to repeat reunir – to meet vender – to sell honrar – to honour educar – to educate costar – to cost inundar – to inundate reservar – to reserve


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