Presentation on theme: "Impeachment Trial of 1868 Andrew Johnson Civil War Stats and Facts Preserve the Union Over 600,000 killed (equals 12- 14 million today) 4 million slaves."— Presentation transcript:
Impeachment Trial of 1868 Andrew Johnson
Civil War Stats and Facts Preserve the Union Over 600,000 killed (equals million today) 4 million slaves freed Strengthened Federal Govt. Death of states rights
Andrew Johnson Lifelong Democrat and slave owner. Despised elite of Northeast and southern planters. Pro-Unioncame to prominence when... as Senator, denounced secession as treason.
Andrew Johnson Republicans nominated him for VP in Hoped to gain pro-war Democrat support. Promote wartime unity of Southern Unionists. Became Lincolns VP and eventually President.
Reconstruction TheoriesTheory 1 State sovereignty cannot be forfeited to federal govt. Task of federal govt. was to: 1.Suppress insurrection 2.Replace its leaders 3.Opportunity for free govt. to re-emerge
Reconstruction TheoriesTheory 2 War was struggle between 2 govts. Southern territory was conquered land. –Federal govt. rules territory how it pleases No internal bordersno right to statehood. –Govt. admitted states under their own rules
Johnsons Restoration Plan Proponent of Theory 1 (lenient theory) Amnesty for Southerners only if they took oath of allegiance to the Constitution. NO high ranking Confederates or wealthy planters. –Elite pardoned only by Johnson.
Johnsons Restoration Plan Restored state governors only if: 1.Revoke their ordinances of secession. 2.Repudiate their Confederate debts. 3.Ratify 13 th Amendmentabolishing slavery. Within months, all former Confederate states complied.
Content for the Moment Republicans were happy. Moderates agreedup to the states, not federal govt. to define rights of freedmen. Radicals held their fire –Liked stern treatment of Confederate leaders. –Hoped new southern govts. would treat slaves well. Radical Republican Thaddeus Stevens
The Black Codes Legislatures reestablished slavery in disguise. Black Codesremove rights of the freed. –Drive former slaves back to plantations. New govts. Formed by southern Unionists. –Not much different from Confederates. Confederates soon filtered back into power.
Johnsons Vetoes Freedmens Bureau Bill and Civil Rights Act. –This is a country for white men, and by God, as long as I am president, it shall be a govt. for white men. Johnson vetoed bothCongress defeated vetoes. Congress passes First and Second Reconstruction Acts.
Radical Reconstruction Republicans took chargeJohnson strongly opposed. Congress passed laws to limit President Enter... Tenure of Office Act –Could not remove govt. officials without Senate approval.
Andrew Johnson vs. Edwin Stanton August 1867, Johnson suspended Stanton: no approval Replaced with Ulysses S. Grant. Congress reconvened, overturned suspension Feb. 21, 1868, Johnson dismissed Stanton. Replaced with Lorenzo Thomas. Feb. 24, 1868, Impeachment Resolution adopted.
Congress vs. Andrew Johnson Impeach: formally charge with wrongdoing. First time in history this happened! House approved 11 counts of misconduct. Sent to Senate for full trial.
Key Figures Benjamin Curtis Salmon P. Chase Benjamin Butler Defense Attorney Chief Justice Prosecuting Attorney
ProsecutionBenjamin Butler 3 hour opening argument. Dismissed argument that T.O.A. didnt cover Stanton. Read parts of Johnsons 1866 speeches. –Basis of 10 th article of impeachment. Referred to President as accidental Chief. Witness testimony actually helped the Defense.
DefenseBenjamin Curtis Stanton was not covered by T.O.A. –Term ended with Lincolns death. Not successful in removing Stanton (no violation of T.O.A.). Act deemed unconstitutionalinfringed upon Presidents powers. 10 th article of impeachment violated 1 st Amendment right to free speech.
VERDICT Vote was One vote short of conviction. Many argued President should not be removed from office for political differences!