Presentation on theme: "Scientific Method 6 Steps to Follow to be a Science Fair Success!"— Presentation transcript:
Scientific Method 6 Steps to Follow to be a Science Fair Success!
Scientific Method § Is a problem solving technique. § All scientist use this method to answer questions. § What are the steps? l State the Problem l Research l Form a Hypothesis l Test/Experiment l Analyze Data l Draw a conclusion
Purpose of Project §Explain why you are doing your project. l Example: I noticed that when we place bread in a drawer it doesnt get moldy as fast as when it is left on the counter. With the cost of groceries rising, I thought that this experiment might show a way of keeping bread fresher longer and save my family a little money.
State the Problem §In question form. §Must be open-ended. In other words, it can not be answered with a yes or a no. §It must be testable. §Something you dont know the answer to. §Must be specific.
Example §"How does light affect the reproduction of bread mold on white bread?" l Do limit your problem. Note that the previous question is about one life process of moldsreproduction; one type of moldbread mold; one type of breadwhite bread; and one factor that affects its growthlight. To find the answer to a question such as "How does light affect molds?" would require that you test different life processes and an extensive variety of molds. l Do choose a problem that can be solved experimentally. For example, the question "What is a mold?" can be answered by finding the definition of the word mold in the dictionary. But, "At room temperature, what is the growth rate of bread mold on white bread?" is a question that can be answered by experimentation.
Bell Work 9/9/09 Write the following in your science journal: Guidelines for ½ page summary over internet research point font, Times New Roman, Double Space 2. Write about topic you researched 3. Include the main ideas that you found in your research 4. How you plan to do a Science Fair project over this topic
Internet Research Use the information below to help you begin your research: 1.Brainstorm about possible topics you would be interested in doing a Science Fair project over 2.Has to be one of these 7 categories: 1.Chemistry2. Biology3. Behavioral Science 4. Computer Science 5. Math6. Physics 7. Engineering 3. Has to be from a reliable internet source ex: The article must have these 3 items present 1. Article title 2. Author of article 3. Publication date
Research §Used to educate yourself on your topic. §Do use many references from printed sourcesbooks, journals, magazines, and newspapersas well as electronic sourcescomputer software and online services. §Do gather information from professionalsinstructors, librarians, and scientists, such as physicians and veterinarians.
Bibliography §This is a step in your research. §You must always give credit to your resources!! §This information will be given in class.
Hypothesis §A hypothesis is an idea about the solution to a problem, based on knowledge and research. §While the hypothesis is a single statement, it is the key to a successful project. §All of your project research is done with the goal of expressing a problem, proposing an answer to it (the hypothesis), and designing project experimentation. §Then all of your project experimenting will be performed to test the hypothesis.
How to Write a Hypothesis §Your hypothesis is your prediction of what you think the end result of your project will be. §A good hypothesis contains: l your prediction l your IV and DV §Example: l If white bread is exposed to light 24 hours a day then it will reproduce mold at a greater rate then white bread exposed to less light.
Variables §IV - Independent Variable l What you physically change in the experiment. l Example: the amount of light each piece of white bread receives. §DV - Dependent Variable l What your experiment changes l This variable is what is being observed. l Or you could say; this is what the IV changes. l Example: the amount of mold grown over a period of time.
Variables Cont §Constants - l these are things that could change in the experiment but you will keep the same through each trial. l Example: type of bread, same brand of bread, bought on the same day, used same type of light, same room temperature. §Control - l this is in the norm. l you compare everything to this. l Example: White bread that is left out based on how it is normally kept at your house.
Performing the Experiment §List material needed first. §Write the procedure. l They must be numbered. l In logical order. l Easy to follow. §Do have only one independent variable during an experiment. §Do repeat the experiment more than once to verify your results. §Do have a control. §Do organize data.
Gathering Data § For some experiments, this is done during the experimental process. §For other experiments, this will be done over a period of time.
Results §Before you can state the results of an experiment, you must first organize all the data collected during experimentation. §Data from each experiment needs to be written down in an orderly way in your journal. § Use a table (a diagram that uses words and numbers in columns and rows to represent data) to record data (see Figures 5.5).
Graphing §Use a graph, such as a bar graph (a diagram that uses bars to represent data) similar to the one shown in Figure 5.6 to analyze (separate and examine) data. §Figure 5.7 shows another way to represent the data. This figure is a line graph (a diagram that uses lines to express patterns of change).
Results §There are other useful ways to represent data. A circle graph, or pie chart, is a chart that shows information in percentages. §The larger the section of the circle, the greater the percentage represented. The whole circle represents 100 percent, or the total amount. §For example, a pie chart can be used to represent the results of an experiment determining the direction of the sun at different times during one day, from sunrise to sunset.
Pie Graphs §Prepare a table expressing the number of hours the sun is in the eastern (E and SE) and western (W and SW) parts of the sky, as shown in Figure 5.9. §Then, express the same data as percentages in a pie chart, as shown in Figure Note that illustrations of rising and setting suns are placed around the circle to add interest to the data displayed.
Charts and Graphs
How to Make a Graph 2. Label Axis a. Dependent variable goes on y-axis b. Independent variable goes on x-axis Y-axis: Label, include units if necessary. X-axis: Label, include units if necessary
Bread Mold: Effects of Light on Mold Growth Mold Growth in millimeters # of weeks
Conclusion: Write about what you have learned 1 st Paragraph – State whether your hypothesis was correct or incorrect. Explain why - support with research data 2 nd Paragraph – What did you learn/observe as you performed your experiments. 3 rd Paragraph – Explain what you will do differently next time you perform this experiment. Explain why.