Presentation on theme: "6 Steps to Follow to be a Science Fair Success!"— Presentation transcript:
16 Steps to Follow to be a Science Fair Success! Scientific Method6 Steps to Followto be aScience Fair Success!
2Scientific Method Is a problem solving technique. All scientist use this method to answer questions.What are the steps?State the ProblemResearchForm a HypothesisTest/ExperimentAnalyze DataDraw a conclusion
3Purpose of Project Explain why you are doing your project. Example: I noticed that when we place bread in a drawer it doesn’t get moldy as fast as when it is left on the counter. With the cost of groceries rising, I thought that this experiment might show a way of keeping bread fresher longer and save my family a little money.
4State the Problem In question form. Must be open-ended. In other words, it can not be answered with a yes or a no.It must be testable.Something you don’t know the answer to.Must be specific.
5Example"How does light affect the reproduction of bread mold on white bread?"Do limit your problem. Note that the previous question is about one life process of molds—reproduction; one type of mold—bread mold; one type of bread—white bread; and one factor that affects its growth—light. To find the answer to a question such as "How does light affect molds?" would require that you test different life processes and an extensive variety of molds.Do choose a problem that can be solved experimentally. For example, the question "What is a mold?" can be answered by finding the definition of the word mold in the dictionary. But, "At room temperature, what is the growth rate of bread mold on white bread?" is a question that can be answered by experimentation.
6Bell Work 9/9/09 Write the following in your science journal: Guidelines for ½ page summary over internet research.point font, Times New Roman, Double Space2. Write about topic you researched3. Include the main ideas that you found in your research4. How you plan to do a “Science Fair” project over this topic
7Internet ResearchUse the information below to help you begin your research:Brainstorm about possible topics you would be interested in doing a “Science Fair” project overHas to be one of these 7 categories:1.Chemistry 2. Biology 3. Behavioral Science4. Computer Science 5. Math 6. Physics7. Engineering3. Has to be from a reliable internet sourceex: The article must have these 3 items present1. Article title 2. Author of article 3. Publication date
8Research Used to educate yourself on your topic. Do use many references from printed sources—books, journals, magazines, and newspapers—as well as electronic sources—computer software and online services.Do gather information from professionals—instructors, librarians, and scientists, such as physicians and veterinarians.
9Bibliography This is a step in your research. You must always give credit to your resources!!This information will be given in class.
10HypothesisA hypothesis is an idea about the solution to a problem, based on knowledge and research.While the hypothesis is a single statement, it is the key to a successful project.All of your project research is done with the goal of expressing a problem, proposing an answer to it (the hypothesis), and designing project experimentation.Then all of your project experimenting will be performed to test the hypothesis.
11How to Write a Hypothesis Your hypothesis is your prediction of what you think the end result of your project will be.A good hypothesis contains:your predictionyour IV and DVExample:If white bread is exposed to light 24 hours a day then it will reproduce mold at a greater rate then white bread exposed to less light.
12Variables IV - Independent Variable DV - Dependent Variable What you physically change in the experiment.Example: the amount of light each piece of white bread receives.DV - Dependent VariableWhat your experiment changesThis variable is what is being observed.Or you could say; this is what the IV changes.Example: the amount of mold grown over a period of time.
13Variables Con’t Constants - Control - these are things that could change in the experiment but you will keep the same through each trial.Example: type of bread, same brand of bread, bought on the same day, used same type of light, same room temperature.Control -this is in the norm.you compare everything to this.Example: White bread that is left out based on how it is normally kept at your house.
14Performing the Experiment List material needed first.Write the procedure.They must be numbered.In logical order.Easy to follow.Do have only one independent variable during an experiment.Do repeat the experiment more than once to verify your results.Do have a control.Do organize data.
15Gathering DataFor some experiments, this is done during the experimental process.For other experiments, this will be done over a period of time.
16ResultsBefore you can state the results of an experiment, you must first organize all the data collected during experimentation.Data from each experiment needs to be written down in an orderly way in your journal.Use a table (a diagram that uses words and numbers in columns and rows to represent data) to record data (see Figures 5.5).
17GraphingUse a graph, such as a bar graph (a diagram that uses bars to represent data) similar to the one shown in Figure to analyze (separate and examine) data.Figure 5.7 shows another way to represent the data. This figure is a line graph (a diagram that uses lines to express patterns of change).
18ResultsThere are other useful ways to represent data. A circle graph, or pie chart, is a chart that shows information in percentages.The larger the section of the circle, the greater the percentage represented. The whole circle represents percent, or the total amount.For example, a pie chart can be used to represent the results of an experiment determining the direction of the sun at different times during one day, from sunrise to sunset.
19Pie GraphsPrepare a table expressing the number of hours the sun is in the eastern (E and SE) and western (W and SW) parts of the sky, as shown in Figure 5.9.Then, express the same data as percentages in a pie chart, as shown in Figure Note that illustrations of rising and setting suns are placed around the circle to add interest to the data displayed.
21How to Make a Graph 1. Title of Graph Y-axis: Label, include units ifnecessary.2. Label Axisa. Dependent variable goeson y-axisb. Independent variable goeson x-axisX-axis:Label, include units if necessary
22Bread Mold: Effects of Light on Mold Growth inmillimeters# of weeks
23Conclusion: Write about what you have learned 1st Paragraph –State whether your hypothesis was correct orincorrect. Explain why - support with research data2nd Paragraph –What did you learn/observe as you performedyour experiments.3rd Paragraph –Explain what you will do differently next time youperform this experiment. Explain why.