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Math HSPA

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Real Number terms Rational number: is any number that can be expressed as the quotient or fraction a/b of two integers, with the denominator b not equal to zero. (ratio is in the word rational) Irrational number: a number that is not rational; a number that continues forever without repeating. Terminating decimal: a decimal that has a finite number of places; a decimal that ends. Repeating decimal: a decimal in which a pattern of one or more digits is repeated indefinitely, for example,

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Real Number terms Non-terminating decimal: a decimal that does not end. Prime number: a number that has only two factors, one and itself. 2 is the only even prime number. Composite number: a number that is not prime; a number that has more than 2 factors.

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**Algebra terms or algebraic terms**

Variable: a letter that is used to represent one or more numbers Term: either a single number or variable, or the product of several numbers or variables separated from another term by a + or - sign in an overall expression. Expression: one or more algebraic terms in a phrase. It can include variables, constants, and operating symbols, such as plus and minus signs. It's only a phrase, not the whole sentence, so it doesn't include an equal sign.

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**Algebra terms Equation: a statement that two expressions are equal.**

Constants: terms in the algebraic expression that contain only numbers. Inequality: a statement in which two values or expressions are not equal using <, ≤ , >, ≥ .

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**Number formats Decimal: a number with a decimal point**

Percent: a ratio of a number to 100 Fraction: a number that names parts of a whole or part of a set of objects Ratio: a comparison of two numbers

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Percent related terms Proportion: an equation stating that two ratios are equal Discount: amount deducted or subtracted from a cost or price Sale Price: price of a good or service that is being offered at a discount Sales tax: a tax collected by all retailers and certain service providers when they make taxable retail sales. Sales tax is added to the price of an item.

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Percent related terms Straight commission: a salesperson compensation or payment method in which only a percentage of the sales volume, but no fixed salary, is paid. Principal: the initial amount Simple interest: is calculated only on the principal amount, or on that portion of the principal amount that remains unpaid. I = P x r x t, P is principal, r is rate, t is time.

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Percent related terms Percent Change: the change between two numbers expressed as a percent

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Percent Change The price of a shirt increased from $20 to $28. Find the percent increase. The cost of a gallon of ice cream increased from $4.29 to $4.89. Find the percent increase. During a sale, the price of athletic shoes was reduced to $35.60 from $ What was the percent decrease in price?

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Calculate total price You bought an Xbox originally priced at $299 on sale at 15% off. What did you pay including 7% sales tax?

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**Geometric Terms Perimeter:**

Area: the region enclosed by a two dimensional figure. Area is measured in square units Volume: the measure of the interior of a solid figure. Volume is measured in cubic units.

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**Complementary: two angles whose sum is 90º**

Supplementary: two angles whose sum is 180º Sum: the result of addition Product: the result of multiplication

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Probability terms Sample space: the set of all possible outcomes in a probability experiment

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**GCF: greatest common factor: the largest common factor shared by two or more numbers.**

LCM: least common multiple: the smallest multiple shared by two or more numbers

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Statistical Terms Mean: is the average of a data set. It is calculated by adding up the data values and dividing by the number of data values. Mode: The number or numbers that occur most frequently. Range: is the difference between the greatest and least data values.

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Statistical Terms Measure of Central Tendency: A number used to represent the center or middle of a set of data values. Mean, median and mode are three measures of central tendency. Median: the middle number when the numbers are written in numerical order. If the number of data values is even, the median is the mean of the two middle numbers.

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Scatter Plots terms Scatter plot: A graph that uses data points to show if a relationship exists between two sets of data. Outlier: A value that is much greater than or much smaller than most of the other values in a data set. Line of best fit: A straight line on a scatter plot that is near most of the points and indicates the general trend between two sets of data.

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**Scatter Plots terms (continued)**

Positive correlation: when y tends to increase as x increases Negative correlation: when y tends to decrease as x increases No correlation: no relationship between y and x

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Algebra II Terms Vertex of a function: is a point where the function reaches the maximum or minimum. Family of functions is made up of function with certain common characteristics. Parent function: is the simplest function with these characteristics. The equations and graphs of the functions in a family resemble each other. Offspring of parent functions include translations, stretches, and shrinks.

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**Algebra II Terms (continued)**

Translation: shifts a graph horizontally, vertically, or both. It results in a graph of the same shape and size but possibly in a different position.

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**Algebra II Terms (continued)**

Consistent Inconsistent Consistent dependent Consistent independent

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