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Unit – I CLIENT / SERVER ARCHITECTURE. Unit Structure  Evolution of Client/Server Architecture  Client/Server Model  Characteristics of Client/Server.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit – I CLIENT / SERVER ARCHITECTURE. Unit Structure  Evolution of Client/Server Architecture  Client/Server Model  Characteristics of Client/Server."— Presentation transcript:


2 Unit Structure  Evolution of Client/Server Architecture  Client/Server Model  Characteristics of Client/Server Model  Client/Server Architecture in the Web  Types of Servers  Types of Client/Server Models  Advantages & Disadvantages of Client/Server Model

3 Evolution of Client/Server Architecture  Mainframes  Dumb Terminals  All processing/data storage on mainframe computer  Large number of users  Expensive  Personal Computers  Single User system  Word Processing, Data Analysis using Spreadsheet  Multimedia Applications & Games

4 Evolution of Client/Server Architecture  Clients & Server on different computer systems  Local Area Network for Server and Client connectivity  Multiple Users  Distributed computation, analysis, and presentation between PCs  Evolved during 1980s  Heterogeneous hardware and software  Provides greater usability, flexibility, scalability and interoperability

5 CLIENT / SERVER MODEL  Model or architecture describes the relationship between two computer programs – Client & Server  Client is the requester that makes a service request  Server fulfills the request or services the request  Multiple client programs share the services of a common server program

6 CLIENT / SERVER MODEL  Servers typically contain data files & applications accessed by multiple clients  Client & Server share the processing load  Client / Server can be on same computer system or on different computer systems  Client/Server model - a convenient way to interconnect programs distributed across different locations

7 CLIENT / SERVER MODEL Client initiates request Server services request SERVER CLIENT

8 CLIENT / SERVER MODEL  Server can range from PCs to mainframes  Standard Server hardware  Support for large amount of RAM  Fast input and output  Fast network cards  Ability to support multiple processors  Support for fault tolerance

9 Characteristics of Client/Server Model  Asymmetrical protocols  Encapsulation of services  Location transparency  Message-based exchanges  Modular, Extensible design  Platform Independence  Scalability  Separation of Client/Server Functionality  Shared resources

10 Characteristics of Client/Server Model  Benefits Provided by Server  Optimization  Centralization  Data Integity  Security  Back-up

11 Function of Client / Server  Client  Initiates requests  Waits for and receives replies  Can connect to several servers at the same time  Typically interacts directly with end-users using a Graphical User Interface (GUI)  Server  Waits for requests from clients  Upon receipt of requests, processes them and then serves replies  Usually accepts connections from a large number of clients  Typically does not interact directly with end-users

12 Transaction Processing Example  Transaction –Get Balance in a Bank Account  Steps  User initiates request giving bank account number (Client program )  Main Server at Bank (Server program) services the request by contacting the Database server oSends a request (Client Program) to the Database Server along with the bank account number oDatabase Server (Server Program) retrieves the bank balance using the bank account number and returns the value  Main server at Bank (Server Program) returns the balance amount to the user (Client Program)

13 AU Distance Education – DMC1754 - Middleware Technologies - Unit I CLIENT / SERVER Transaction Processing CLIENT MAIN SERVER DATABASE SERVER 1 2 3 4

14 CLIENT/SERVER ARCHITECTURE IN THE WEB  World Wide Web (WWW) or Web revolves around the client/server architecture  Client computer system uses Browsers ( like Internet Explorer, Netscape Navigator, Mozilla etc. ) to interact with Internet servers using Protocols  Protocols help in the accurate transfer of data - requests from browser & responses from server  Commonly used protocols :  HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol)  FTP (File Transfer Protocol)  SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)

15 Client / Server Model Static HTML Pages

16 Client / Server Model Dynamic HTML Pages

17 Client / Server Model Server – side Scripting

18 Types of Servers  File Server  Database Server  Application Server  Web Server  Object Server  Others – Chat Server, Fax Server, Mail server, News Server …


20  Objectives of File Server  To promote sharing of files (computer programs and/or data)  To encourage indirect or implicit (via programs) use of remote computers  To shield a user from variations in file storage systems among hosts  To transfer data reliably and efficiently

21 Database Server  A computer in a LAN dedicated to database storage and retrieval  The database server holds the Database Management System (DBMS) and the databases  Upon requests from the client machines, it searches the database for selected records and passes them back over the network

22 Database Server - Example Software Project Team – sharing a database

23 APPLICATION SERVER  Application server runs the programs and processes the data  Application servers are typically used for complex transaction-based applications  Application server performs the business logic functions and some data access  An application server provides middle tier processing between the user's machine and the database management system (DBMS)

24 Web Server Web Server delivers web pages to browsers

25 Client/Server Application  Has three functional units:  Presentation logic or user interface (for example, ATM machines)  Business logic (for example software that enables a customer to request an account balance)  Data (for example, records of customer accounts)  Functional units can reside on the client or on multiple servers  Middleware is the software that connects / communicates between client and server

26 Two-Tier Architecture

27 Two-Tier Architecture - Internet

28 Three -Tier Architecture

29  The Middle Tier can be  A Transaction Processing Monitor  A Message Server  An Application Server  An Object Server

30 Three -Tier Architecture - Internet

31 Multi -Tier Architecture



34 Advantages of Client/Server  Distribution or sharing of processing load among several independent computers  Centralized data storage on server, hence easy to implement security of data access  Clients with the appropriate permissions may be permitted to access and change data  Centralized data. Hence easy to administer  Is capable of functioning with multiple different clients each with different capabilities

35 Disadvantages of Client/Server  Traffic congestion on the network (number of simultaneous client requests to a server) can cause a server to become overloaded and unable to service client’s requests  Under client-server, should a critical server fail, clients’ requests cannot be fulfilled. Hence, lack of robustness is a cause for concern

36 Summary  The following concepts have been covered  Evolution of client / server architecture  Client / Server architecture  Characteristics of client / server model  Different types of servers  Client / server on the Internet  Different types of client/server models  Advantages and Disadvantages of Client/Server Architecture

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