Presentation on theme: "■ Essential Question: – What were the lasting characteristics of the Roman Republic & the Roman Empire? ■ Warm-Up Question: – What is Hellenism? – Why."— Presentation transcript:
■ Essential Question: – What were the lasting characteristics of the Roman Republic & the Roman Empire? ■ Warm-Up Question: – What is Hellenism? – Why was Alexander of Macedonia considered “great”?
In addition to Greece, a significant classical civilization was ancient Rome
The Roman World ■ Rome? ■ Venice? ■ Florence? ■ Milan ■ Pisa ■ Sicily ■ Sardinia ■ Corsica ■ Mt. Vesuvius
Impact of Geography on Rome: Identify 1 geographic feature & propose how it might impact the culture of Rome
The Geography of Rome Rome was located on the Italian peninsula along the Mediterranean Sea The Romans were influenced by the Greeks & neighboring Etruscans
The Culture of Ancient Rome Roman religion was polytheistic & based on the Greek gods (usually only the names changed)
The Culture of Ancient Rome Roman writing was called Latin & was based on Greek writing
The Culture of Ancient Rome Roman architecture borrowed heavily from Greek styles Like Greek agoras, Roman cities had a forum for markets & public gatherings
The Culture of Ancient Rome Society was divided among 3 major groups: At the top were the nobles, called patricians, who controlled most of the land & held key military & gov’t positions (made up 5% of Roman citizens)
The Culture of Ancient Rome Society was divided among 3 major groups: Most people were commoners, called plebeians, who were farmers, shopkeepers, or peasants; Plebeians paid the majority of taxes (made up 95% of Roman citizens)
The Culture of Ancient Rome Society was divided among 3 major groups: At the bottom of society were slaves & other non-Roman citizens
Quick Class Discussion: Based upon this image, what was Roman government like?
The Government of Ancient Rome Rome was originally ruled by kings, but in 509 B.C. the Romans created a republic A republic is a form of government in which citizens have the power to elect their leaders
The most important feature of the republic was the Senate, whose 300 members were elected by citizens to make laws & taxes
The Government of Ancient Rome In 451 B.C., government officials wrote down Rome’s laws onto the Twelve Tables which were hung in the forum for all citizens to see The Twelve Tables were based on the idea that all citizens had a right to the protection of the law
The Roman World Takes Shape ■ The Roman republic Lasting legacy The common people were allowed access to government. The U.S. Constitution adopted such Roman ideas as a senate, veto & checks on political power.
The Roman World Takes Shape ■ Expansion in Italy Citizen-soldiers Fought without pay; supplied their own weapons. Valued loyalty, courage & respect for authority. Commanders mixed rewards with harsh punishments. Displays of courage were awarded with gifts. If a unit fled from battle, 1 out of every 10 was put to death.
The Roman World Takes Shape ■ Expansion in Italy Conquered lands Conquered people had to acknowledge Roman leadership, pay taxes & supply soldiers. In return, they could keep their own customs, money & local governments.
The Roman Military Rome was protected by an advanced army that was divided into groups of 5,000 soldiers called legions Each legion was divided into smaller groups of 80 men called a century
By the 3 rd century B.C., the Romans conquered the Italian peninsula & began to exert power in the Mediterranean world But, the growth of Rome threatened Carthage, the superpower of the Mediterranean world
In a series of battles known as the Punic Wars, Rome defeated Carthage & began the dominant power in the Mediterranean
From Roman Republic to Empire ■ Wars with Carthage ■ Punic Wars – (264 – 146 B.C.) ■ Three wars took place:
From Roman Republic to Empire ■ Wars with Carthage – Punic Wars ■ In the first war, Rome defeats Carthage & claims Sicily, Corsica & Sardinia.
From Roman Republic to Empire Wars with Carthage - Punic Wars In the second war, Carthage is seeking revenge. Hannibal & a vast army of 50,000 men, 9000 cavalry & 60 elephants crosses the Pyrenees Mountains, through France & the Alps in Italy. Half of Hannibal’s army was lost; however, he surprised the Romans (attacking from the north) who were expecting an attack from the south. For 15 years, Hannibal moves across Italy winning battle after battle. A Roman general, Scipio, planned an attack on Carthage. This forced Hannibal to return where he was defeated. Rome won the 2 nd Punic War in which they almost lost.
From Roman Republic to Empire ■ Wars with Carthage - Punic Wars ■ For years, Rome feared that Carthage would return. Eventually, Rome attacks & completely destroys Carthage. ■ In the final war….Legend has it that the Romans burned the city of Carthage, killed or sold the survivors into slavery & poured salt on the there fields.
After the Punic Wars, Rome conquered new territories & gained great wealth One of the generals who led Rome’s expansion was a politician named Julius Caesar
Problems for the Roman Republic ■ Rome’s expansion brought wealth, but also created problems: – The addition of new lands & sources of slave labor increased the gap between the rich & poor – Generals who controlled the armies became more powerful than the politicians in the Senate – Struggles for power led to a series of civil wars in Rome
Closure Activity ■ Compare governments of the ancient world: – Complete the chart on the back of your notes