2MAPS A representation of the physical features of an area Reference Point – a fixed place on Earth’s surface from which direction and location can be describedCardinal Direction – north, south, east, west
3LocationsLatitude – The distance north or south of the equator; lines of latitude measure north or south but run east to westLongitude – The distance east or west of the prime meridian; lines of longitude measure east or west but run north and south
5Earth's TopographyTopographic map- a map that shows surface features or topographyElevation- the height of an object above sea level
6Elements of ElevationContour Lines- lines that connect points of equal elevationContour interval- the difference between contour lines
7Gimme Some ReliefRelief- the difference in elevation between the highest and lowest points of the area being mappedIndex contour- a darker, heavier contour line that is labeled by elevation
8Contour Lines The Golden Rules Contour lines never cross The spacing of contour lines depends on slope characteristicsContour lines that cross a valley or stream are V shapedThe tops of hills, mountains, and depressions are shown by closed circles.
9Your Turn Using the topographic provided, locate the following. Hendersonville (Latitude and Longitude)An index contour, what is the elevation?Carl Sandburg Home (Latitude and Longitude)Apple Valley Middle SchoolWhat is the elevation?Name one of the streams located around Apple Valley.Is this a tributary? How do you know?How would you describe the relief of the area around the school?How do topographic maps help us understand watersheds?