Presentation on theme: "Big theme in biology: Structure and function are related! This is true at all levels of organization: at the levels of molecules, organelles, cells, tissues,"— Presentation transcript:
Big theme in biology: Structure and function are related! This is true at all levels of organization: at the levels of molecules, organelles, cells, tissues, organs, and organisms.
Note log scale.
Types of Cells 1.Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes Bacteria Animals Archaea Plants Fungi Protists 2. Categories based on differentiation
Contrasting the size and complexity of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells Prokaryotic cell Nucleoid region Nucleus Eukaryotic cell Organelles TEM 15,000 Colorized TEM 15,000 Fig 4.3A
Fig 24.1A. Engulfment of bacteria by macrophage Comparing sizes of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells
Nucleus Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Rough endoplasmic reticulum Ribosomes Golgi apparatus Plasma membrane Mitochondrion Flagellum Not in most plant cells Lysosome Centriole Microtubule Cytoskeleton Intermediate filament Microfilament Peroxisome Figure 4.4A A typical animal cell Eukaryotic cells are partitioned into functional compartments
Cell Organelles in Cytoplasm Organelle (part)Function (job) Mitochondriapowerhouse converts food energy in to usable energy (ATP) ERCarries proteins throughout the cell. RibosomesMakes proteins Golgi BodiesReceives, packages & sends materials. Chloroplasts (plant only) Captures light energy to make food energy Vacuolesstorage LysosomesChemicals for breakdown.
Fig 4.5. The nucleus: the cells genetic control center. Nucleus Chromatin Nucleolus Pore Ribosomes Rough endoplasmic reticulum Two membranes of nuclear envelope
Smooth ER Rough ER Nuclear envelope Rough ER Ribosomes Smooth ER TEM 45,000 Figure 4.7 Endoplasmic Reticulum Smooth ER has a variety of functions, eg making lipids. Rough ER makes membranes and proteins.
Mitochondria harvest chemical energy from food.
Organization of a typical plant cell Central vacuole Not in animal cells Chloroplast Cell wall Golgi apparatus Nucleus Microtubule Cytoskeleton Intermediate filament Microfilament Ribosomes Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Mitochondrion Peroxisome Plasma membrane Rough endoplasmic reticulum Figure 4.4B
Fig 4.14 TEM 9,750 Chloroplast Stroma Intermembrane space Inner and outer membranes Granum Chloroplasts convert solar energy to chemical energy.
18 Human Cells: Organelles & Subcellular Structures Genetic headquarters: Nucleus Manufacturing: Nucleus, Ribosomes, Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi. Breakdown of materials (digestion): Lysosomes and Peroxisomes Energy Processing: Mitochondria Support, Movement, and Communication: Cytoskeleton, Cell Walls, Extracellular matrix, Cell junctions
Cellular and sub-cellular levels Cell membrane has surface area of 1/30 the surface area of period on typical page. Nucleus has a surface area of 1/10 of cell membrane.
Organelles and Subcellular Structures Manufacturing Nucleus, Ribosomes, Rough ER, Smooth ER, Golgi Apparatus. (Connected through endomembrane system.) Breakdown: Lysosomes, Peroxisomes, Vacuoles Energy Processing: Chloroplasts, Mitochondria Support, Movement, and Communication: Cytoskeleton, Cell Walls, Extracellular matrix, Cell junctions