Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Ch19 Disorders Associated with the Immune System: AIDS

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Ch19 Disorders Associated with the Immune System: AIDS"— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch19 Disorders Associated with the Immune System: AIDS

2 LEARNING OBJECTIVES Explain the attachment of HIV to a host cell
List two ways in which HIV avoids the host’s antibodies Describe the stages of HIV infection Describe the effects of HIV infection on the immune system Describe how HIV infection is diagnosed List the routes of HIV transmission Identify geographic patterns of HIV transmission List the current methods of preventing and treating HIV infection

3 Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
Origin and History 1981: In US, cluster of Pneumocystis pneumonia and Kaposi's sarcoma in young homosexual men discovered. The men showed loss of immune function. 1983: Discovery of virus causing loss of immune function. 1986: Scientists started to identify the virus with "HIV" abbreviation. HIV is thought to have crossed the species barrier into humans in central Africa in the 1930s. Patient who died in 1959 in Congo is the oldest known case. Virus spread in Africa as result of urbanization. World-wide spread through modern transportation and unsafe sex. Norwegian sailor who died in 1976 is the first known case in Western world.

4 HIV Infection – Review from Ch 13

5 Pathogenesis: HIV cellular targets
Th cells APCs brain cell intestinal epithelium

6 HIV Infection – AIDS is Final stage of HIV Infection
HIV: Retrovirus with ssRNA, RT, and envelope with gp120 spikes. Gp120 attach to CD4 on ________ cells, M, dendritic cells. Function of RT? Provirus latent or directs active viron synthesis HIV evades IS via latency, vacuoles, antigenic change Fig 19.13

7 HIV Attachment, Fusion, and Entry
Fig 19.13

8 Latent vs. Active HIV Infection in CD4+ T Cells

9 Active HIV Infection in Macrophages

10 The Stages of HIV Infection
Phase 1: Asymptomatic or chroniclymphadenopathy Phase 2: Symptomatic; early indications of immune failure Phase 3 is AIDS: Characterized by indicator conditions, such as: CMV, TB, Pneumocystis, toxoplasmosis, and Kaposi's sarcoma (see Table 19.5) Phases 1 and 2 are reported as AIDS if CD4+ T cells <200 cells/µl; Phase 3 always reported as AIDS Progression from HIV infection to AIDS:  10 y The life of an AIDS patient can be prolonged by the proper treatment of opportunistic infections People lacking CCR5 are resistant to HIV infection CCR5, short for chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR5 gene[1] which is located on chromosome 3 on the short (p) arm at position 21. CCR5 has also recently been designated CD195 (cluster of differentiation 195). The CCR5 protein functions as a chemokine receptor. The natural chemokine ligands that bind to this receptor are RANTES, MIP-1α and MIP-1β. CCR5 is predominantly expressed on T cells, macrophages, dendritic cells and microglia. It is likely that CCR5 plays a role in inflammatory responses to infection, though its exact role in normal immune function is unclear. HIV uses CCR5 or another protein, CXCR4, as a co-receptor to enter its target cells. Several chemokine receptors can function as viral coreceptors, but CCR5 is likely the most physiologically important coreceptor during natural infection. A number of new experimental HIV drugs, called entry inhibitors, have been designed to interfere with the interaction between CCR5 and HIV, including PRO140 (), Vicriviroc (Schering Plough), Aplaviroc (GW ) (GlaxoSmithKline) and Maraviroc (UK ) (Pfizer). A potential problem of this approach is that, while CCR5 is the major co-receptor by which HIV infects cells, it is not the only such co-receptor. It is possible that under selective pressure HIV will evolve to use another co-receptor.

11 Several chemokine receptors can function as viral coreceptors, but CCR5 is likely the most physiologically important.  new experimental HIV drugs, called entry inhibitors

12 The Progression of HIV Infection
Foundation Fig19.16

13 Exposed, but not infected Survival with HIV Infection
CCR5 mutation Effective CTLs Survival with HIV Infection Long-term nonprogressors Mechanism not known

14 Pneumocystis jirovecii

15 Diagnostic Methods Seroconversion takes up to 3 months
HIV antibodies detected by ELISA HIV antigens detected by Western blotting HIV antigens detection for diagnosis of congenital HIV infection, needle stick accidents and to monitor drug therapy: Plasma viral load tests (PCR or Western blot) Plasma viral load (PVL) is determined by PCR or nucleic acid hybridization

16 To be conclusive (HIV-positive), a Western Blot must have 5 horizontal stripes.

17 Below is a photograph of a Western Blot tests
Below is a photograph of a Western Blot tests. This series of tests illustrates how an HIV test result can change during the window period from HIV-negative to HIV-positive. Each column is one Western Blot test. On the left side of the image there are two columns to be used as points of comparison. The column marked "PC" is an HIV-positive test result and the column marked "NC" is an HIV-negative test result. Column 3 to Column 10 are tests performed on a single person beginning with the day when the person was first exposed to HIV (Column 3, Day 0) to when the person had a full-blown HIV infection (Column 10, Day 30). An HIV infection is not the same as an AIDS diagnosis. This series records the process during which a person's immune system produces a response to an HIV infection. Each black or dark grey horizontal stripe is representative of the presence of a different antibody against a protein found in HIV. To be conclusive (HIV-positive), a Western Blot must have 5 horizontal stripes.

18 HIV Transmission HIV survives 6 h outside a cell and < 1.5 d inside a cell Infected body fluids transmit HIV via Sexual contact Breast milk Transplacental infection of fetus Blood-contaminated needles Organ transplants Artificial insemination Blood transfusion In developed countries, blood transfusions are not a likely source of infection anymore

19 AIDS Worldwide Heterosexual intercourse (85%) Injected drug use (IDU)
Women comprise 42% of infected Fig 19.17

20 AIDS Prevention Condoms and sterile needles!
Health care workers use Universal Precautions: Wear gloves, gowns, masks, and goggles Do not recap needles Risk of infection from infected needlestick injury is 0.3% Vaccine difficulties due to Mutations Geographical clades Antibody-binding sites “hidden” Infected cells not susceptible to CTLs Proviruses Latent viruses (2099 last phase III trial in Thailand) See Table 19.6

21 AIDS Chemotherapy The End
Treatment has much improved with HAART Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy - cocktail) Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors(mostly nucleoside analogs, e.g.: AZT) Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors Protease inhibitors Fusion inhibitors The End

Download ppt "Ch19 Disorders Associated with the Immune System: AIDS"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google