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Ch 26: Urinary System Objectives Identify and describe the components of the urinary system and their function Describe the (histological) organization.

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Presentation on theme: "Ch 26: Urinary System Objectives Identify and describe the components of the urinary system and their function Describe the (histological) organization."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch 26: Urinary System Objectives Identify and describe the components of the urinary system and their function Describe the (histological) organization of the nephron Identify the blood vessels that supply blood to the nephrons Describe the blood flow through and around the nephron

2 Functions of Urinary System (Kidneys): Excretion of organic waste products Regulation of blood Volume pH Ion concentration

3 Kidney Location Lateral to vertebral column in retro- peritoneal position

4 Surface Anatomy Hilus Three layers Renal fascia Adipose capsule Renal capsule

5 Sectional Anatomy Cortex: light reddish brow and granular (due to many capillaries) Medulla: darker striped appearance (due to tubules) Subdivided into distinct renal pyramids. Separated by renal columns from the cortex. Fig 26-3

6 Urine collection: Ducts within each renal papilla release urine into minor calyx major calyx renal pelvis ureter

7 Functional unit: Nephron Renal corpuscle: »Glomerulus »Bowmans capsule Tubular passageways: »PCT »LOH »DCT »CD (>mio/kidney) Fig 26-4 Fig 26-5

8 Filtration: Passage across Three Barriers Capillary endothelium Fenestrated What gets through? Basement membrane Glomerular epithelium (= visceral layer of Bowmans capsule) slit pores between pedicels Fig 26-5

9 Juxtaglomerular Apparatus Macula densa + Juxtaglomerular cells (smooth muscle fibers from afferent arteriole) = Juxtaglomerular Apparatus = Endocrine system structure (renin and EPO)

10 Cortical vs Juxtamedullary Nephrons Cortical nephrons (85%) Juxtamedullary nephrons (15%), play keyrole in concentrating urine.

11 Renal Circulation Renal Circulation Segmental arteries Interlobar arteries Arcuate arteries Interlobular arteries Afferent arterioles Glomerulus Efferent arterioles Peritubular capillaries Segmental veins Interlobar veins Arcuate veins Interlobular veins Venules Renal Artery Renal Vein Fig 26-7

12 Urine Transport, Storage, and Elimination Trace drop of urine from kidneys to outside world Lining of these parts? Lining Nephroptosis (= floating kidneys) Nephroptosis Nephrolithiasis

13 Transitional Epithelium empty bladder full bladder from renal pelvis to neck of urethra.

14 Supine position Upright position: 1 st degree nephroptosis: Nephroptosis

15 Nephrolithiasis occurs when urine becomes too concentrated and substances crystalize. Symptoms arise when stones begin to move down ureter causing intense pain. Kidney stones may form in the pelvis or calyces of the kidney or in the ureter.

16 Anatomy of Urinary Bladder max. holding capacity : 1l Detrusor muscle: inner longitudinal middle circular outer longitudinal

17 UTIs (esp. E.coli) Male versus Female

18 The End Kidneys may sustain 90% loss of nephrons and still not show apparent symptoms!!! 2-4 % of population only have 1 kidney! Manneken Pis Fountain Brussels, 1619


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