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Ch. 4 Section 1 Objectives Name the scientists who first observed living and nonliving cells. Summarize the research that led to the development of the.

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Presentation on theme: "Ch. 4 Section 1 Objectives Name the scientists who first observed living and nonliving cells. Summarize the research that led to the development of the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch. 4 Section 1 Objectives Name the scientists who first observed living and nonliving cells. Summarize the research that led to the development of the cell theory. State the three principles of the cell theory. Explain why the cell is considered to be the basic unit of life.

2 The Discovery of Cells All living things are made up of one or more cells. All living things are made up of one or more cells. A cell is the smallest unit that can carry on all of the processes of life. A cell is the smallest unit that can carry on all of the processes of life. Section 1 The History of Cell Biology

3 Ch. 4 Cell Discovery cont. Hooke Hooke Robert Hooke discovered cells in slices of cork. Robert Hooke discovered cells in slices of cork. Leeuwenhoek Leeuwenhoek Anton van Leeuwenhoek was the first to observe living cells in microorganisms. Anton van Leeuwenhoek was the first to observe living cells in microorganisms.

4 Cell Theory Development (Schleiden, Schwann, and Virchow) 1838 Matt Schleiden: All Plants are composed of cells 1838 Matt Schleiden: All Plants are composed of cells 1839 Theodor Schwann: All Animals are composed of cells 1839 Theodor Schwann: All Animals are composed of cells 1847 Rudolf Virchow: Cells come only from other cells 1847 Rudolf Virchow: Cells come only from other cells

5 Cell Theory The cell theory states that all living organisms are made of one or more cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function, and cells come only from pre-existing cells. The cell theory states that all living organisms are made of one or more cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function, and cells come only from pre-existing cells.

6 Cell Theory cont. Cellular Basis of Life Cellular Basis of Life All living things are made of organized parts, obtain energy from their surroundings, perform chemical reactions, change with time, respond to their environment, and reproduce. All living things are made of organized parts, obtain energy from their surroundings, perform chemical reactions, change with time, respond to their environment, and reproduce.

7 The Cell Theory #1 All living things are made of 1 or more cells #1 All living things are made of 1 or more cells #2 Cells are the basic units of structure and function of an organism #2 Cells are the basic units of structure and function of an organism #3 Cells come only from the reproduction of existing cells (new cells come only from other cells) #3 Cells come only from the reproduction of existing cells (new cells come only from other cells)

8 Section 2 Introduction to Cells Explain the relationship between cell shape and cell function. Explain the relationship between cell shape and cell function. Identify the factor that limits cell size. Identify the factor that limits cell size. Describe the three basic parts of a cell. Describe the three basic parts of a cell. Compare prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. Compare prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. Analyze the relationship among cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and organisms. Analyze the relationship among cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and organisms. Objectives:

9 Cell Diversity Cell Shape Cell Shape A cells shape reflects its function. A cells shape reflects its function.

10 Cell Diversity cont. Cell Size Cell Size Cell size is limited by a cells surface area– to-volume ratio. Cell size is limited by a cells surface area– to-volume ratio.

11 Surface Area per Volume Ratio 4 sides:1 box 4/1=4 sides per square 12 sides:9 boxes 12/9=1.333 sides per square

12 What is the surface area to volume ratio?

13 Cell Parts The three basic parts of a cell are the plasma membrane, the cytoplasm, and the nucleus. The three basic parts of a cell are the plasma membrane, the cytoplasm, and the nucleus.

14 Cell Parts cont. Plasma Membrane Plasma Membrane The cells outer boundary, called the plasma membrane (or the cell membrane), covers a cells surface and acts as a barrier between the inside and the outside of a cell. The cells outer boundary, called the plasma membrane (or the cell membrane), covers a cells surface and acts as a barrier between the inside and the outside of a cell.

15 Cell Parts cont. Cytoplasm Cytoplasm The region of the cell that is within the plasma membrane and that includes the fluid, the cytoskeleton, and all of the organelles except the nucleus is called the cytoplasm. The region of the cell that is within the plasma membrane and that includes the fluid, the cytoskeleton, and all of the organelles except the nucleus is called the cytoplasm.

16 Cell Parts cont. Nucleus Nucleus The nucleus is a membrane-bound organelle that contains a cells DNA. The nucleus is a membrane-bound organelle that contains a cells DNA.

17 2 Basic Types of Cells Prokaryotes Prokaryotes Prokaryote cells lack a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. Prokaryote cells lack a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.

18 2 Types of Cells cont. Eukaryotes Eukaryotes Eukaryote cells have a nucleus and membrane- bound organelles. Eukaryote cells have a nucleus and membrane- bound organelles.


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