Pre-Industrial Revolution Get into a Mindset – Demographics – Age Structure – Goals – Diet – Sickness – Social Class – Gender Roles 1750 - 1820
Demographics 90% of the population lived in independent farms – This included owners, family, and servants These farms were self-sufficient – They made what they needed to survive or they traded goods to get what they needed Pre-Industrial Revolution
Age Structure Infant Mortality Rate 1-10 est. (1800) Low Life Expectancy – 1750 – 30 (South), 40 (North) – 1800 – 36 (East Coast) – 1850 – 39 (East Coast) Most children would experience death of a family member Remarriage was common – http://www-rcf.usc.edu/~shammas/hist350/u_s.htm Pre-Industrial Revolution
Goals #1 Goal was to KEEP FAMILY ALIVE! – Must provide every need independent of others Food Shelter Clothing Pre-Industrial Revolution 1770s log cabin in Pennsylvania
Diet Pre-Industrial Revolution Lack of Food was common Food sources dependent on weather and outside forces Diet was repetitive People ate bread, cheese, butter, porridge, eggs, raw fruits and veggies (in season) and canned ones out of season. Meat either fresh or preserved was consumed when available.
Sickness Illness was a normal part of life What medicine there was, was not available to most of the population Standard of living increased illnesses – Dirty homes, bodies – Physicality of work – Dangers of environment Pre-Industrial Revolution
Social Class Pre-Industrial Revolution Majority of population was poor Small middle class Small elite upper class
Gender Roles MEN – Firewood (for heat and cooking) – Farming – Making of tools – Wood, leather, and metal working – Animal husbandry WOMEN – Cooking – Cleaning – Clothing – Raising of children – Education (if any) of children Pre-Industrial Revolution CHILDREN were taught gender skills by parents. Their work included carrying water, wood, simple cloth mending and harvest activities. Roles were gender specific unless injury or death occurred.
Early Industrial Revolution The Reason for the Industrial Revolution Key Inventions -Age of Steam Transportation Changes in the home Negative effects of the Industrial Revolution 1800 - 1900
The Reason for the Industrial Revolution War of 1812 – The war of 1812 with Britain created a need for Industrialization in America. We were unable to trade for the things we needed, and therefore had to start manufacturing them ourselves. Early Industrial Revolution
Key Inventions – The Age of Steam STEAM ENGINE – Used in almost every new invention of this time period. – Argued to be the single most important invention of the 19 th century. – Improved manufacturing, transportation, mining Textile Mills Flour Mills (1860 –the leading Industry in U.S.) Steamboats Railroads Specialized tools and machines were created to make engines and keep them running Early Industrial Revolution
Transportation Steamboats - 1809 – Appalachian MTS separated the country – After invention, goods and information travel faster and prices decrease 120 days to 9 days (New Orleans to St. Louis) 90% decrease in transportation prices Railroads – 1820s – Early RR were unsafe, uncomfortable & slow – 1820-1850 – 30,000 miles of track were laid – By 1850 RR had replaced canals as transportation of goods and people – RR fueled Industrial Revolution – wood, steal, coal, oil must be supplied, this spurs other industries. Early Industrial Revolution
Changes in the Home Early Factories produced things for ordinary people – flour, textiles (plain cloth) and household items. Mens work was moving outside of the household for wages. The wages then would be used to buy produced goods. Womens work actually increased. Childrens labor was replaced. Instead children started to go to school. Education was encouraged and Women picked up the excess work. Early Industrial Revolution
Negative Effects of Industrial Rev. Factories – Dangerous (3%-5% of workforce killed or injured on the job) – Pushed employees and machines to the limit Ways of life threatened – RR eliminate small towns that were not along lines – Cultures became more homogenized from area to area – Native Americans ways of life threatened – buffalo killed by trains and hunting expeditions (decline of 10s of millions) – Farmers hated RR and progress through their lands Early Industrial Revolution
Late Industrial Revolution: Development and Impact of the Assembly Line Mass Production and Fordism Labor Experience Impact of Mass Production 1900 - 1940
Mass Production and Fordism Interchangeable Parts Large volume production of a single model Low-priced goods; low margin of profit Economies of sale Special purpose machines Low skill requirements of workers I prefer immigrants right off the boat that dont know how to build a car -Henry Ford Moving assembly line Late Industrial Revolution
Impact of Mass Production – National and Global Impact Mass Consumption German and Russian Industrialization Cultural Influences – Art – Music – Film (ie. Charlie Chaplin – Modern Times) – Architecture Late Industrial Revolution
Labor Experience Clock vs. Task Orientation Working along with the machine Working on only one small piece Two competing experiences / Demands Labor Problems – Workers response to mass production – Consequences – Fords $5 a day – Forditis Late Industrial Revolution
Relationship to the Upper Peninsula Fords Sawmill LAnse 1930s
Industries Increase Mining –iron ore, limestone, copper, etc. Shipping – large freighters Logging – more demand for lumber 1920's PICTURE OF FORD MOTOR COMPANY'S GREAT LAKES FREIGHTER, "HENRY FORD II", AT THE LOADING DOCK OF THE FORD SAWMILL IN L'ANSE.
Fords desire to be Independent Ford didnt want to depend on anyone else for his automobile industries He set out to own all aspects – Lumber – Upper Peninsula – Iron ore, copper, limestone – U.P., Minn. – Coal – Kentucky, West Virginia – Rubber Plantation – Brazil (2.5 million acres) – Railroads and Shipping
Ford in the Upper Peninsula Fords demand for natural resources grew Bought mines, ships, and built railroads Acquired 500,000 acres of forest in U.P – Proper resource management – Worked with U.S Forest service By 1950s wood was no longer needed in auto industry Ford died in 1947 Company management began closing down U.P. operations down around 1955
Ford creates Village Industries Kingsford (1923) – Built homes, schools, hospital – 14 assembly plants, sawmill, steam power plant, dam, hydroelectric facility, chemical charcoal plant – Built Woodie station wagon and Glider for WWII Alberta – Built as a result of more demand for resources – Built homes, schools, social buildings Henry Ford in Alberta with school children 1930s
Lesson Plan The American Revolution in the Upper Peninsula
Special Thanks to: The Henry Ford Greenfield Village National Endowment for the Humanities – Landmarks of American History Teacher Workshop Influential Texts – More Work for Mother Ruth Cowan – The Rational Factory Lindy Biggs – Working at Inventing William S. Pretzer – Technology & American Society a History Gary Cross & Rick Szostak – Passage to Union: How the Railroads transformed American Life Sarah H. Gordon
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