Presentation on theme: "Multitiered Interventions"— Presentation transcript:
1 Multitiered Interventions Using Scientific Research-Based Interventions to Improve Outcomes for All StudentsMultitiered Interventions1
2 A Multi-Tiered Service Delivery Model SRBI implementation is a continuum of service delivery options available in each school.Developing a multi-tiered model requires efficient use of resources and utilizing instructional “teaming.”( Burns & Gibbons, 2008, p. 122)Not a “new initiative” that will pass as a trendEmphasize SRBI as process and system (with key principles and particular processes) for providing “appropriate instruction and interventions” for all studentsIt is a framework for continuous improvement
3 Intervention Priorities Literacy (Reading and Writing)MathematicsInappropriate Student Actions/BehaviorsThe above areas need to be examined in relationship to adult actions.-2ist Century learners and citizens require a high degree of literacy, mathematical understanding, cooperative behavior, critical thinking and problem-solving skillsOur goal is to graduate learners – who are able to contribute and provide for self and others in this society
4 Triage of Students Needing Intervention What can we do to prevent/intervene in Tier 1 (differentiated instruction, whole group re-teach)?Which students require Tier 2 intervention (supplemental small group instruction)?Which students require Tier 3 intervention(intensive very small group or individualized instruction)?Tier 1 intervention might include:Problem of day for re-teaching (idea from horizontal pairs of teachers)Schoolwide re-teaching when vertical team (whole school ) see areas students fell down on a benchmark assessment.Tier 2 supplemental instruction might include:-direct instruction decoding groups for 2nd grade students who have not mastered word attack skills in gradesK,1,2-practice and drill in math fact fluency for 5th grade students who have not mastered multiplication and division facts (more time on task)Students may require direct entry into Tier 3 in such cases as:-At the secondary level, if students are significantly below peers (2-3+ years) in reading or mathematics they may require Direct entry into Tier 3-ELL students with little formal reading acquisition in their native language may require intensive reading services.REMEMBER THE GOAL: TO IMPROVE OUTCOMES FOR STUDENTS and TO KNOW BY DATATier 3 is not a ‘life sentence” – a vehicle for reaching goals – (analogous to surgery and intensive care or treatment)
5 What is an intervention? Intervention= specific, targeted remedial techniques(McCook, 2006, p.51)Interventions are strategic, purposeful adult actions that prevent learning difficulties and accelerate, and/or enrich student learning.(Cappello, et. al. 2008)For all students – prevent, accellerate
6 (Brown-Chidsey & Steege, 2005, p.8) InterventionSpecific activities and procedures designed to reduce significantly the difference between what a student can currently do and what he or she is expected to do.Interventions need to be empirically validated with evidence of effectiveness in school settings.(Brown-Chidsey & Steege, 2005, p.8)Can use the “double dose” and “round of antibiotic” analogyInterventions are “treatments of short duration intended to quickly and thoroughly “close the gap” in targeted skills and concepts where students are not showing proficiency.-In a prevention model, early diagnosis and treatment prevents compounding problems later on.-Tied to ASSESSMENT. Early intervention cannot occur without scheduled, valid, and reliable universal screening-SPECIFIC, TARGETED, LASER-LIKE FOCUS on skills deficits to close gap and conceptual misunderstandings to comprehend concepts
7 What Are Interventions? Targeted assistanceDepending on school level (elementary, middle, or high), interventions are administered by a classroom teacher, a specialized teacher, or an external interventionistTargeted instruction (Tier 2)Small group (4-6 students : 1 interventionist)Intensive instruction (Tier 3)Small group or Individual (1-3 students : 1 interventionist)and/or technology assisted (Tiers 1, 2 or 3)-Efficiency Model: Start with small, supplemental group, provide intervention, monitor student progress frequently-If rate of learning in Tier 2 (after several adjustments to the intervention strategy) will not help the student reach the learning target in a reasonable amount of time, we must adjust the variables of FREQUENCY, DURATION, and INTENSITY of our interventions.
8 InterventionsExplicitly teach specific concepts, skills, and learning strategiesMatch curricular materials and instructional levelAdapt modes of task presentation to address a variety of modalitiesCue work habits/organizational skillsAdjust direct instructional timeAdjust amount of guided and independent practiceMcCook 2006Not in order of importance or hierarchyCOHN, 2008Explicit instruction in concepts and skills (sound letter correspondence, decoding, magnitude, subtraction with re-grouping, social skills etc)Practice and drill (reading fluency, fact fluency) and discovery with manipulativesComputer-based instructionSelf-monitoring strategyProblem solving strategies – academic and social/emotional learningComprehension strategiesWriting strategies and pre-planning
9 Explicit InstructionRegardless of the approach, teachers make instruction explicit when they explain how and when to use strategies and model implementation; help students use them in multiple contexts indifferent content areas and genres; scaffold support.
10 Interventions Ensure optimal pacing Increase task structure (differentiation)Increase task relevant practiceMini lesson on skill deficitsChange types and methods of corrective feedbackMcCook 2006Not in order of importance or hierarchy-Feedback is critically important to teacher and student and only possible with frequent progress monitoring-Engaging student in the entire process of understanding where they are in relation to the learning target and what they need to know or be able to do (to reach the target) provides students with clarity about the task and motivation to work toward the goal. This is true with all students (elem. to HS) and is a critical feature of successful intervention programs.10
11 Interventions are NOT Preferential seating Shortened assignments Lowered expectationsParent contactsClassroom observationsSuspensionRetentionPeer tutoring, unless its scientifically based (i.e., PALS – Peer Assisted Learning Strategies - Reading and Math)(McCook, 2006)McCook, 2006-Interventions are not modifications or accommodations to the existing curriculum, they are targeted and supplemental instruction (tutorial or foundational approaches).-Interventions are not bureaucratic actions on the part of adults (paperwork, referrals, discussions)-Family contact is a communication, not an intervention because parent responses to a problem (or lack thereof) are beyond our “sphere of influence.”-Interventions are targeted school staff actions on behalf of the students
12 Use of Scientific Research-Based Interventions Using interventions that have a proven track record increases the probability of positive outcomes for students.If an intervention does not result in positive outcomes for the student, then it is time to move on (as long as fidelity was determined) and employ interventions that are effective.(Brown-Chidsey & Steege, 2005)(McCook, 2006)-SRBI Interventions are not guaranteed in all content and social situations - we need to use a combination of research knowledge, professional judgment, and progress monitoring to respond appropriately to student’s learning needs.-Where SRBI information is not readily available, turn to research based approaches in closely related subject areas or use best practice from the Tier 1 field (example (concrete-representational-abstract learning model for Tier 1 mathematics is used in intervention strategies)6 to 8 data points (McCook) 8 to 20 weeks (Hintze) of progress monitoring data are required to make an informed decision about student progress or lack thereof (McCook, 2006).Make sure intervention was carried out as planned (FIDELITY)
13 Intervention 3 minute discussion What effective interventions do we see occurring already in our schools?Where?When?Make a list of effective interventions-Make a list will be used later in resource mapping
14 TIER 1 TIER 1 AT A GLANCE Students Interventionist Curriculum InstructionProgress MonitoringTimeLocationInclusionWhole ClassFlexible GroupsClassroom TeacherCommon CurriculumStandards DrivenSRBIDifferentiatedCommon Formative&SummativeAssessmentUniversalAssessment 3x per year90 minutes daily inL.A.60 minutes daily in MathGeneralClassroomKEEP IT BRIEF- these components will be discussed further in future slidesSome districts use 90 minutes plus an additional 30 (for interventions) for literacy
15 Tier 1 “Universal Intervention” Are schools using best practice at Tier 1?Academic DomainCommon Core Curriculums (culturally relevant and research-based)Common Formative AssessmentsCollaborative Data Decision MakingEffective Teaching StrategiesDifferentiated InstructionNeed to look at how we’re providing intervention in the core.Prevention Model: Efficiency: Deploy greatest resources to Tier 1 to provide highest quality, preventive education to 100% of the population.This reduces the number of students requiring intervention services.For schools and districts with substantial achievement problems, Tier 1 (the core) must be examined and strengthened to reduce numbers of students requiring intervention.
16 Tier 1 “Universal Intervention” Are schools using best practice at Tier 1?Social-Emotional-Behavioral-DomainSchoolwide expectations for behavior are explicitly taughtConsistency in school structures and routinesSocial-emotional learning curriculumSchool & classroom level behavior supports (re-teaching, incentives, recognition, corrective feedback)Universal common assessment (data review) and progress monitoringYou may quote all or part of this statementPrevention (Walker et al., 1996)Decrease development of new problemsPrevent worsening of existing problemsEliminate Triggers: Redesign learning/teaching environmentTeach, monitor, & acknowledge pro-social behavior16
17 Tier 1 Brainstorming Activity Are the effective interventions we identified earlier research-based?How do we know?How can we find out?5 minutes discussion with teamA few examples to report to large group
18 SRBI InspectionWe must become savvy consumers and explore the claims of “effectiveness” and “research base” in the educational programs & products we purchase and use.When Investigating SRBI:Visit commercial websitesRead product literaturePhone product representative and ask questions about research basis of productQuestions to ask: Claims of effectiveness are based on:How many studies?What was the population and sample size?What was the degree of reliability & validity?Are the results applicable to our population?Is this product useful and do-able in our setting?-You do not need an advanced degree to be “research savvy”Using search engines such as google, google scholar and web libraries you can effortlessly access information about given strategies, products, programs.Searches that produce little results should make one wonder “is this a good strategy to try if I can find FEW or NO REFERENCES for it? Would I want someone using an unknown strategy with my child?
19 Tier 2 TIER 2 AT A GLANCE Students Interventionist Curriculum InstructionProgress MonitoringTimeLocationSmall Groups4-6 : 1Grouped by sameSkill or strategyClassroom TeacherSpecialistInstructional Aide, Tutor orParaSRBI that supplementsTier 1SRBIprocedures, programs & materialsProbes ormini-assessmentsMinimum every 2 wks.Recommendweekly30-45minutesessions3-4x per weekGeneral education classroom,lab, small instruction-al space-Tier 2 supplements, but does not supplant Tier 1 instruction.-Taking a student out of Language Arts class to “catch up” in intervention defeats the purpose by removing them from vital core instruction
20 Examples of Tier 2 Intervention Academic Domain:Small Group (maximum 6:1) direct instruction in:Phonemic awarenessWord decoding (explicit instruction)Reading fluency (practice)Whole number operations (hands on & explicit instruction)Fact fluency (computer-based practice & corrective feedback)Writing formats, structures & strategiesReading strategies using content-area materialsStudents at Tier 2 may require multiple interventions simultaneously or in sequence-Tier 2 interventions at elementary and secondary levels-Examine this list…Tier 2 intervention is “targeted.” Try to identify “root cause” of the reading, math or writing problem and start there.-Be strategic- too many interventions at once, dilutes the power of targeted instruction-May need an efficient diagnostic assessment to zero in on the “root cause” of problem (example: a quick diagnostic reading assessment will indicate which of these sills is weakest,…start there)
21 Examples of Tier 2 Intervention Social-Emotional-Behavioral Domain:Small group (maximum 6:1)direct instruction in:Self control or impulse control strategiesSocial skills trainingAnger management strategiesCoping skills training for anxiety/ fears/ withdrawalSmall group supports for absenteeism / truancySmall organizational homeroom with direct instruction in organizational strategiesStudy skills strategiesStudents at Tier 2 may require multiple interventions simultaneously or in sequence-Tier 2 interventions at elementary and secondary levels- 2 slides-Point out that All social-emotional-behavioral interventions do not belong solely to guidance, social worker or psychologist. Teaching teams can problem solve ways to support students on team.
22 Tier 2 Brainstorming Activity What interventions are we currently offering to small groups of students?In the academic domain?In the social-emotional/behavioral domain?Are our interventions research-based?Are we targeting the intervention for specific students’ needs?4 to 5 minutes
23 Tier 3 TIER 3 AT A GLANCE Students Interventionist Curriculum InstructionProgress MonitoringTimeLocationSmall Group1-3 : 1Grouped by sameskilldeficitsClassroom TeacherSpecialistInstructional Aide, TutororParaSRBI that supplementsTier 1 and Tier 2SRBIprocedures, programs & materialsProbes ormini-assessmentsMinimum weeklyRecommend2-3 times/week60minutesession ortwo 30 minute sessionsDailyGeneral education classroom, lab, or smallspace forinstruction
24 Examples of Tier 3 Interventions Academic Domain:Individualized or small group (maximum 3:1) instruction in:phonemic awareness instructionstandardized phonological instructionnumber sense instructionwriting mechanicsTeaching of content specific vocabulary and academic content instructionStudents at Tier 3 may require multiple interventions simultaneously or in sequenceTier 3 interventions at elementary and secondary levels
25 Examples of Tier 3 Interventions Social-Emotional-Behavioral Domain:Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA) & Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP) for students with intensive social–emotional/behavioral needs.Individualized anger management plan with de-escalation, time-out, & counseling contingencies.1:1 organizational instruction & support.Student behavior charting & reflection plans.Individualized incentive & recognition programs.Students at Tier 3 may require multiple interventions simultaneously or in sequence-Repeat that all social-emotional-behavioral interventions do not belong solely to guidance, social worker or psychologist. Teaching teams can problem solve ways to support students on team.-Example:Time-out, Time-Away, Time in Office (every teacher has a timeout space in room, a “time away” teacher partner where student can take a time out if timeout in class isn’t working, and lastly go to office. This can become standard practice on teams.
26 Tiers 2 and 3: PersonnelEVERYONE in the building is a potential resourceRe-conceptualize who does whatPersonnel deployed AFTER needs are identifiedWHERE matters less and lessREMEMBER, student performance matters more than labels, locations and staff needs.A school cannot deliver intensive services to more than 7% of the population
27 Stacy A first grade student who moved to East School in December. On the January benchmark ORF assessment, she read 4 correct words per minute (cwpm).According to benchmark goals for Winter of 1st grade, Stacy is at high risk for failing to meet the end of year goal.An analysis of assessment protocols indicated that Stacy:Had established phonemic awarenessKnew all her letter sound correspondencesLacked a strategy for decoding wordsKnew very few sight words
28 Stacy’s Instructional Plan 20%Take part in all classroom reading instruction (i.e., core instruction).Receive small group intervention (5-6 students) focusing on decoding, for 30 minutes, four time a week.Monitor progress weekly.
30 Stacy’s Instructional Plan: Adjustments 5%Receive more intensive systematic intervention program 45 minutes, 5 days a week with group of 2-3 students.Review sight words with classroom teacher 10 minutes, 2 times a dayPreview critical components of core instruction with instructional assistant before whole class instruction.Continue to monitor progress weekly.Literacy team meet to review Stacy’s progress weekly.
31 Progress MonitoringA change in interventionAimline
32 Tier 3 Brainstorming Activity What intensive interventions are we currently offering to very small groups of students or individuals?In the academic domain?In the social-emotional-behavioral domain?Are our interventions SRBI?Are our interventions being provided at the level of intensity that is needed form some students?3 to 5 minutes
33 Reading & Math Standards & Critical Content Resources to guide intervention decisions:ReadingCT Blueprint for Reading Success (2000)Beyond the Blueprint (2007)National Reading Panel (2000)Mathematics2007 CT Mathematics StandardsNCTM Focal Points (2006)National Math Panel Report (2008)
34 Resources to Guide Selection of Social Emotional Learning (SEL) Curriculums Collaborative for Academic, Social and Emotional Learning (CASEL)University of Chicago & USDESocial-Emotional Learning Standards(Illinois Ed. “Safe and Sound”)Developmental Continuum (behavior standards from primary school through late adolescence)Three standards:Self Awareness & Self ManagementSelf Awareness & Interpersonal RelationshipsDecision-Making and Responsibility-21st century skills for emotional intelligence in working with diverse groups of people-Standards list what a student should “know and be able to do” socially, emotionally and behaviorally at each life stage from pre-k through 12.-Excellent resource for evaluating our existing developmental guidance programs and before purchasing or developing new programs.
35 For Starters….On-Line Resources: READING:MATH:BEHAVIOR:
36 Tier 2 & 3 Interventionists and Locations Elementary School:More likely to be in the classroom with the classroom teacher as the interventionist.Interventions are above and beyond Tier 1 core practices (e.g., effective teaching strategies, flexible groups, differentiation).Secondary School:More likely to be in a separate classroom or lab with a specially trained interventionist or in a specially designed course.-Point out that this depends on the intervention and the distance from the current grade level-Elem teachers = expected to be trained in early literacy and reading acquisition. Teacher = first point of contact for reading and math-Secondary level= 7-12 certification does not include reading acquisition or early math concepts…may require intervention by specialists, scripted programs or specific training for classroom teachers.The “cliff “ seems to start around grade 3 when we assume that students only need to work on READING COMPREHENSION and that they have already acquired all their early reading skills. Until this becomes an actual reality, we must provide intervention for students lacking these critical reading skills. The same goes for mathematics, writing and behavior.
37 Some Examples of Tier 2 Interventions in Elementary School Within classroom intervention by classroomteacher or specialistWithin classroom scripted intervention by para or tutorGrade level or teaching team “Enrichment and Intervention Block”In addition to core reading and mathAt the elementary level, it may be best to implement standard treatment protocols for Tier 2 intervention at the classroom level with periodic consultation with the school intervention team.Standard treatment protocols are supplemental instructional “programs” or “units of study” for small groups of students who all share the same skill deficit.
38 Some Examples of Tier 2 Interventions in Secondary School Need teachers with reading or math expertise (trained in the teaching of foundational concepts and skills)Often use lab (reading lab, math lab)Durational classes (flexible groups) in addition to core math and reading classesMay use a specifically designed course with creditStrategies:Scaffolded Reading Experience Organizational Framework (Graves, Juel, & Graves, 2001)Steps:Prereading – Identify the strategy to activate prior knowledge and build background information.Reading – Promote visualization strategies, knowledge of text structure, and self regulation. Model and demonstrate.Postreading – Determine strategy students will use to demonstrate knowledge of content.List-group-label strategy (pre-reading)Visualization (during reading) (use of media, personal letters, recordings, music from era) – create pictures for comprehensionSelf-regulation – gradual release – from teacher to studentStory pyramidIdentify main character using one wordDescribe main character using two wordsDescribe setting using three wordsDescribe problem/conflict using four wordsDescribe an event near the beginning using five wordsDescribe an event near the middle using six wordsDescribe an event near the end using seven wordsDescribe the solution or conclusion in eight wordsThe above is for narrative texts but could be modified for expository textsChange character to topic
39 Some Examples of Tier 3 Implementation Tier 3 – Intensive InstructionLack of progress in Tier 2 or direct entry to Tier 3 following universal assessmentDiagnostic Assessment & Individual Intervention PlanDaily 60 minute sessions (indiv. or groups of 2-3)Intervention by specialist, teacher, or specially trained paraprofessional with scripted programFrequent progress monitoringRequires schedule changes-This Tier is time and staff intensive. Tier 3 is reserved only for students who have not responded to intervention in Tier 2. It is inefficient to use 1:1 or 1:3 ratios for students who would progress nicely with 1:6 ratios. This is consistent with the prevention model’s conservation of resources approach.-This Tier is akin to the reading or math “intensive care unit.” It requires very high levels of intensity, frequency and duration.- If students are not responding in Tier 3 after several strategies with very frequent progress monitoring (6-8 data points, McCook 2006) it is very appropriate to seek an evaluation to provide greater understanding of the student’s individual learning profile and needs.
40 Entrance and Exit Criteria Establish criteria ahead of timeStep Down Schedules (i.e., “gradual release”)After exiting, universal assessment provides “safety net” for all studentsHow will classroom teachers embed successful intervention strategies into core general education practices?Establishing criteria essential to “continuum of intervention/ instruction”What are cut points for intervention?When are students entered into intervention? (who decides?)When are students exited (may have a scheduling impact, esp at the MS and HS level)This Criteria clarifies what is responsibility of Tier 1 teachers vs. Tier 2 & 3 teachers?Step down schedules? Transition all at once? Transition over time (4x per week to 3x per week to 2x per week to exit)?
41 Fidelity of Implementation Ensure that intervention (instruction) is delivered as it was designed ….Adopt a quality assurance system including:Structured schedules for progress monitoringStructures for data collection & data analysisFidelity checks using logs or notes for each intervention sessionScheduled meetings for consultations between interventionists (especially important when paraprofessionals and tutors provide interventionWell developed communication system between tiers 1,2,3 and regular reports to familiesIntegrity of the system results inimproved student performancedocumentation of all regular education attempts BEFORE referring to special education.Quality Controlaccountabilityreviewcontinuous improvement in all three tiers.Requires development of a system ofWritten protocols at every level of interventionUse of daily logs or notesData collection and review of progressEnsure an accurate and complete achievement data baseParent communication and supportCommunication system across tiersRequires administrative leadership, close involvement and supportWalkthrough protocols
42 SRBI Planning ToolWorking with your teammates, discuss the following questions and record your responses on the SRBI Planning Tool page.Regarding your districts multitiered interventions/continuum of supports:What is your current state?What is your desired state?What are your next steps?Planning time – 30 minHave teams use the SRBI Planning Tool document to examine theirCurrent RealityDesired RealitySharing time – 15 minHave each team share one current and desired reality42