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1 Michael D. Rettig, Professor Emeritus James Madison University Flexible Scheduling Options for Secondary Schools

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2 Agenda n History and Introduction n Analyzing and Comparing the Most Common High School Scheduling Formats n Why Have Schools Adopted Block Schedules? n What Mistakes Have Schools Made When Implementing Block Schedules? n Using Time to Meet the Needs of Students n Increasing Core Time in Middle School Schedules n A Comment on Teaching in the Block n Recommendations for Successful Implementation

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Marzano, 2003

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5 A truly flexible schedule is one that provides more learning time for those need it and more choices for those who dont need more learning time.

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6 Criteria for Comparison of Schedules n Time per course n Choices available n Cost n Student Load n Teacher Load n Percentage of Core (assuming 1 class (period or block) of E,M,SS, and SC per year) n Meeting format: daily (yearlong), every-other-day (yearlong), daily (semester)

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7 6-Period Day Period 1 Period 2 Period 3 Period 4 Period 5 Period 6 n Time per course-57 x 180 n Choices available-6 n Cost Factor- 5/6 (83%) n Student Load-6 n Teacher Load-5 n Percentage Core-67% n Meeting format: daily- yearlong

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8 6-Period Advantages n Daily meeting n Total time per course-More than all but 6 A/B n Percentage of core-67% is more than all others and equivalent to the 6 A/B n Cost- Same as 6 A/B; more than 6/7 or 7/8; less than all others.

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9 7-Period Day Period 1 Period 2 Period 3 Period 4 Period 5 Period 6 Period 7 n Time per course-48 x 180 n Choices available-7 n Cost Factor- 5/7 (71%), 6/7 (86%) n Student Load-7 n Teacher Load-5 or 6 n Percentage Core: 57% n Meeting format: daily- yearlong

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10 7- Period Advantages n Daily meeting n Total time per course (less than 6-period, 6 A/B and 7 A/B; more than 8-period, 8 A/B, 4X4, and Hybrid 4X4 n Percentage of core (less than 6-period and 6 A/B; more than 8-period, 8 A/B, 4X4 and Hybrid 4X4) n Choice (one more than 6-period; one less than 8- period, 8 A/B, 4X4, and Hybrid 4X4)

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11 8-Period Day n Time per course-43 x 180 n Choices available-8 n Cost Factor- 5/8 (62.5%), 6/8 (75%), 7/8 (87.5%) n Student Load-8 n Teacher Load-5, 6, or 7 n Percentage Core: 50% n Meeting format: daily- yearlong Period 1 Period 2 Period 3 Period 4 Period 5 Period 6 Period 7 Period 8

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12 8- Period Advantages n Daily meeting n Choice (Same as 8 A/B, 4X4, and Hybrid 4X4; more than all others.) n Flexibility for double-dosing

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13 Why Have Schools Moved to Block Schedules? n To maintain/expand choice in the face of increasing core credit requirements for graduation, n To improve school management, n To allow/encourage teaching in depth and higher level thinking skills, to permit more (or less time) for students to attain high levels of mastery on state accountability tests, and n To reduce stress, for both students and teachers, yet still offer a broad and rigorous curriculum.

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14 What mistakes have some schools made when implementing block schedules? n The use of a flawed decision-making process to adopt a block schedule. n Poor preparation for teaching in the block, including insufficient staff development and/or inattention to course pacing. n Unclear goals, over-promising or not meeting promises made. n Poor scheduling decisions in the adoption phase. n Budgetary concerns. n The lack of a rigorous formal evaluation.

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15 6 A/B Schedule A DayB Day Block 1Class 1Class 2 Block 2Class 3Class 4 Block 3Class 5Class 6 n Time per course-119 x 90 n Choices available-6 n Cost Factor- 5/6 (83%) n Student Load-6 n Teacher Load-5 n Percentage Core: 67% n Meeting format: E- O-D-yearlong

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16 6-A/B Advantages n Total time per course-More than all other schedules listed. n Percentage of core-67% is more than all others and equivalent to the 6-period. n Cost- Same as 6 period; more than 6/7 or 7/8; less than all others.

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17 MTWRF Block 1 (100) Block 2 (100) Block 3 (82) 5 and Lunch Block 4 (100) A/B Schedule (Atlee High School) n Time per course- 100 x 90 or 50 X 180 n Choices available-7 n Cost Factor- 5/7 (71%), 6/7 (86%) n Student Load-7 n Teacher Load-5 or 6 n Percentage Core: 57% n Meeting format: E- O-D yearlong or daily-yearlong

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18 7- A/B Advantages n Total time per course (less than 6-period and 6 A/B; more than 7-Period, 8-period, 8 A/B, 4X4, and Hybrid 4X4) n Percentage of core (same as 7-period, less than 6- period and 6 A/B; more than 8-period, 8 A/B, 4X4, and Hybrid 4X4) n Choice (one more than 6-period; one less than 8- period, 8 A/B, 4X4, and Hybrid 4X4) n Daily student load n Daily teacher load

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19 8 A/B Schedule A DayB Day Block 1Class 1Class 2 Block 2Class 3Class 4 Block 3Class 5Class 6 Block 4Class 7Class 8 n Time per course-88 x 90 n Choices available-8 n Cost Factor- 5/8 (62.5%), 6/8 (75%), 7/8 (87.5%) n Student Load-8 n Teacher Load-5, 6, or 7 n Percentage Core: 50% n Meeting format: E- O-D-yearlong

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20 8- A/B Advantages n Choice (Same as 8 A/B, 4X4, and Modified 4X4; more than all others.) n Flexibility for double-dosing n Daily teacher load (if teaching 5 or 6) n Daily student load

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21 Benefits of the Alternate day Block Schedule n Longer classes encourage teaching with a variety of instructional models. n Fewer start-ups and endings result in more useable instructional time. n Fewer class changes improve school climate, discipline, and cleanliness. n Because teachers see fewer students daily they know students better and are able to give more individual assistance. n Compared to every day models, students have fewer classes, quizzes, tests, and homework assignments on any one day.

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22 Issues to Be Addressed in the Alternate Day Block Schedule n Attention Span n Teacher planning n Lunch periods n Absences n Review n Sink time n To float or not to float n Equalizing students load n Block vs. single period in 7 course plans n Teaching in the Block

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23 5 Block Trimester Schedule 60 Days Block 1 Class 1.5 CR Class 6.5 CR Class 11.5 CR Block 2 Class 2.5 CR Class 7.5 CR Class 12.5 CR Block 3 Class 3.5 CR Class 8.5 CR Class 13.5 CR Block 4 Class 4.5 CR. Class 9.5 CR. Class 14.5 CR. Block 5 Class 5.5 CR Class 10.5 CR Class 15.5 CR n Time per course-69 x 120 n Choices available- 7.5 n Cost Factor- 4/5 (80%) n Student Load-5 n Teacher Load-4 n Percentage Core: 4/7.5 (53%) n Meeting format: Daily-trimester

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24 5-Block Advantages n Choice (7.5) n Flexibility for 1.5 credit classes n Daily and trimester teacher load n Daily and trimester student load n More days of contact than 4X4 5-Block Adaptations Needed n Performing Arts n AP or IB n Special Education

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25 4 X 4 Schedule Sem. 1Sem. 2 Block 1Class 1Class 2 Block 2Class 3Class 4 Block 3Class 5Class 6 Block 4Class 7Class 8 n Time per course-88 x 90 n Choices available-8 n Cost Factor- 5/8 (62.5%), 6/8 (75%), 7/8 (87.5%) n Student Load-8 n Teacher Load-5, 6, or 7 n Percentage Core: 50% n Meeting format: Daily-semester

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26 4X4 Advantages n Choice (Same as 8 A/B, 4X4, and Modified 4X4; more than all others.) n Flexibility for double-dosing n Daily and semester teacher load n Daily and semester student load n Acceleration and credit recovery possibilities. Adaptations Needed for the 4X4 n Performing Arts n AP or IB n Special Education n Foreign Language

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27 The Hybrid 4 X 4 Schedule with a Limited Number of Yearlong Embedded A/B Classes or Skinnies Block IV Block III Block II Block I 65 Semester II Semester I 12 Day 1 Course 3 Day 2 Course 4 Course 8 Everyday Yearlong Skinny Course 7 Everyday Yearlong Skinny

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28 Hybrid 4X4 Advantages n Choice (Same as 8-Period, 8 A/B, 4X4; more than all others.) n Flexibility for double-dosing n Daily and semester teacher load n Daily and semester student load n Mitigates testing and continuity concerns related to the 4X4 for certain courses

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Time Comparison Chart 6 Period7 Period8 Period6 A/B7 A/B 5 Block Trimester 8 A/B, 4X4, Hybrid Homeroom Passing Time Lunch 30 Class Length X 100 and 1X Total 420 Time Per Course 10,2608,6407,74010,7109, Choices Class Meetings per Year or Percentage Core (E,M,SC,SS) 4/6 (67%)4/7 (57%)4/8 (50%)4/6 (67%)4/7 (57%) 4/7.5 (53%) 4/8 (50%) All computations based on a 7 hour (420 minutes) student day.

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30 Factors Impacting the Cost of A School Schedule n Pupil-teacher ratio. n The percentage of the periods/blocks taught by each teacher.

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Cost Comparison Chart 8-Period, 8 A/B, 4X4, or Hybrid; Teach 7 7 Period or 7 A/B; Teach 6 6-Period or 6 A/B; Teach 5 5 Block Trimester; Teach 4 8-Period, 8 A/B, 4X4, or Hybrid; Teach 6 7-Period or 7 A/B; Teach 5 8 A/B, 4X4, Hybrid; Teach 5 Student Load Teacher Load Cost Factor 87.5%86% 83% 80%75%71%62.5% Less ExpensiveMore Expensive

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32 School Factors Related to Improving Student Achievement n Balance the workload of students. n Balance the workload of teachers. n Provide extended learning time. n Provide time in the master schedule for tutorials. n Create a small group, caring learning environment n Alter policies and grading practices that focus on sorting and selecting vs. teaching and learning. n Increase the amount of time students are actively engaged in their learning.

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33 n Set high expectations for all students. n Encourage more students to take rigorous programs (pre-AP, pre-IB, School-to-Work, dual enrollment, AP, IB). n Create structures and supports to help students who have not traditionally been enrolled in these more rigorous curricula to be successful. n Personalize the school environment. What do Effective Secondary Schools Do?

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34 Scheduling Time for Instructional Interventions/Support in Secondary School n Study/Seminar Period n Double dosing n Double dosing with tutorials n Recycling in Mathematics n Support Courses (i.e. AP or Alg. I) n Progressive Algebra

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35 The 8 A/B Schedule with Seminar/Study Block Block IV Block III Block II Block I Study/Seminar7 65 Day 2 Day

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36 Math Double Dose Block IV Block III Block II Block I ElectiveElective PE/H Social Studies Day 2/Sem. 2 Day 1/Sem.1 LA Science Algebra I

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37 LA Double Dose Block IV Block III Block II Block I ElectiveElective PE/H Social Studies Day 2/Sem.2 Day 1/Sem. 1 LA LA Mathematics Science

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38 LA & Math Double Doses Block IV Block III Block II Block I ElectiveScience PE/H Social Studies Day 2/ Sem. 2 Day 1/Sem. 1 LA LA Algebra I

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39 Double Blocks of LA and Math with Tutorials: Student Schedule Block IV Block III Block II Block I PE/H Social Studies Algebra I Language Arts and Reading Day 2 Day 1 LA Tutorial 45m Math Tutorial 45m Elective or Earth Science

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40 Re-cycling in Mathematics: Semester Recycle Block IV Block III Block II Block I ElectiveElective PE/H Social Studies Sem. 2 Sem.1 LA Science Algebra I-P1 Algebra I-P1 or P2

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41 Re-cycling in Mathematics: Recycle after Quarter Block IV Block III Block II Block I ElectiveElective PE/H Social Studies Sem. 2 Sem.1 LA Science Algebra I-P1-a Algebra I- P1-a or b Algebra I- P1-a.b, & c Algebra I-P1- a,b,c, or d

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42 7-Period Day Support Course Per. 1AP A/B Calc. Period 3 Period 4 Period 5 Period 6 Period 7 P1. D1 AP Support P1. D2 PE

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43 The 8 A/B Schedule: AP Support Block IV Block III Block II Block I ElectiveElective Physics Math Analysis Day 2 Day 1 U.S. History A.P. English 12 Spanish IV A.P. Support or Elective

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44 The 4X4 Schedule: Algebra I A/B Support Block IV Block III Block II Block I ElectiveElective World Hist. Earth Science Day 2 Day 1 Day 1: Algebra I English 9 Spanish I Day 2: Algebra 1 Support or Elective

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45 The 8 A/B Schedule: Algebra 1 Support Block IV Block III Block II Block I ElectiveElective World Hist. Earth Science Day 2 Day 1 Geometry 1 English 9 Spanish I Geometry Support or Elective

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46 Potential Components of a Predictive Model for Algebra I Success n Teacher recommendations n Algebra I Readiness Test n Performance on state mathematics assessments in earlier years n Grades n Students Past Performance in Algebra I n Other???

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47 Possible Predictors Algebra Readiness Test, State Assessments Teacher Recommendation, Grades, Other Performance in Algebra I in the Typical Scheduling Format (1 period per day, A/B Block, 1 Semester in the 4X4) Predictive Model If a student scores X on the predictors, then we expect Y in Algebra I offered in the traditional format) Service Delivery Options Based upon the predictive model a service delivery model is recommended (i.e. traditional time, tutorial help, double-dose, etc.)

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48 Achieving Common Goals u Common Curriculum u Common Pacing u Common Formative and Summative Assessments u Collaborative Monitoring System u Common Time for Intervention and Enrichment

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49 Progressive Algebra Rettig and Canady, TsQ1Q2Q3Q4Q5Q6Q7Q8 MAA1A2A3A4G1G2G3G4 MBA1A2A3A4G1G2G3G3 MCA1A2A3A3A4G1G2G2 MDA1A2A2A3A4A4G1G1 MEA1A1A2A2A3A4A4G1 MFA1A1A2A2A3A3A4A4 Key: Q=4.5 weeks; A=Algebra I, 4 Parts; G=Geometry 4 Parts

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50 If we can agree that something is good practice, shouldnt we institutionalize its use? Putting it in the schedule increases the likelihood of institutionalization.

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51 n If an educator keeps using the same strategies over and over and the student keeps failing, who really is the slow learner?

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52 Recovery Model (Sem. 1) (Possibly for Grade 8 Failures) Semester 1 Semester 2 30 Days Potential Re-entry Block I C1C2C3 Course 5 Block II C1C2C3 Course 6 Block III C1C2C3 Course 7 Block IV C4-ElectiveC8-Elective

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53 Recovery Model (Sem. 2) (For 1 st Semester Failures) Semester 1 Semester 2 30 Days Block I Req. Course 1 C5 (1) C6(2)C7 Block II Req. Course 2 C5 (1) C6(2)C7 Block III Req. Course 3 C5(1)C6(2)C7 Block IV Elective Course 4 Elective Course 8

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54 We cannot keep raising the bar without also increasing supports, or else we will create more failures and ultimately more drop- outs.

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55 8 Guiding Questions Which Help Us Revisit the Mission and Goals of Middle Schools 1. What is an appropriate number of students a middle school teacher should see each day/term/year? Is there a relationship between how a teacher works with students and the number of students assigned to a teacher? 2. What is the appropriate number of teachers for middle school students to see each day/term/year? Is there a relationship between student behavior and "sense of belonging" and the number of teachers a student is assigned during a day/term/year?

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56 8 Guiding Questions Which Help Us Revisit the Mission and Goals of Middle Schools, cont 3. What is the appropriate time balance between core and encore subjects? What factors should be considered in determining this balance? 4. What is the appropriate number of subjects for students to be enrolled during any one day/term/year? Is there a relationship between the number of classes for which students are responsible and their success in those classes? 5. How should exploratory classes be scheduled in relation to other subjects?

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57 Key Question 3: a. What percentage of a students day should be spent in the following basic subjects: English (including reading), mathematics, science, and social studies? b. How should the total time allocated to ELA, math, science and social studies be divided among these subjects? c. How should the time allocated to encore classes be divided among the various possibilities?

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58 6. While many middle school schedules on paper show the possibility of flexibly combining single periods into longer instructional blocks, in practice, we find classes typically are taught in single periods; hence, does the middle school experience become even more fragmented for both students and teachers? Does such practice create stress and make it difficult for teachers to implement some of the more productive teaching strategies? 8 Guiding Questions Which Help Us Revisit the Mission and Goals of Middle Schools, cont

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59 7. With the growing diversity of school populations, do we need to plan schedules which permit extended learning time for those students who need additional time to meet course expectations? 8. Should a middle school schedule be compatible with elementary and high school schedules in the feeder pattern? 8 Guiding Questions Which Help Us Revisit the Mission and Goals of Middle Schools, cont

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60 The Major Issue for Middle Schools: Increasing Core Instructional Time and Adding Time for Intervention or Enrichment and Still Maintaining Some Elective/Exploratory Choice for Students

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61 The Four-Block Schedule (Double Dose of LA and M) Block IV Block III Block II Block I Elective/Exploratory/PE Science Social Studies Mathematics Language Arts and Reading Day 2 Day 1

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62 Two-Teacher Team Times8:00-8:10 Block I 8:10-9:40 Block II 9:45-11:15 11:20- 11:50 Block III 11:55-1:25 Block IV 1:30-3:00 Teacher A LA/R/SSHRLA/R Group 1 LA/R Group 2 LunchSS Group 1 Day 1 Group 2 Day 2 PE, Elective, and Exploratory For Students Planning For Teachers Teacher B M/SCHRMath Group 2 Math Group 1 LunchScience Group 2 Day 1 Group 1 Day 2

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63 Three-Teacher Team Times8:00-8:10 Block I 8:10-9:40 Block II 9:45-11:15 11:20- 11:50 Block III 11:55-1:25 Block IV 1:30-3:00 Teacher A LA/RHRLA/R Group 1 LA/R Group 2 LunchLA/R Group 3 PE, Elective, and Exploratory For Students Planning For Teachers Teacher B MathHRMath Group 3 Math Group 1 LunchMath Group 2 Teacher C SS/SCHRSS/SC Group 2 SS/SC Group 3 LunchSS/SC Group 1

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64 Four-Teacher Team Times8:00-8:10 Block I 8:10-9:40 Block II 9:45-11:15 11:20- 11:50 Block III 11:55-1:25 Block IV 1:30-3:00 Teacher A LA/RHRLA/R Group 1 LA/R Group 2 LunchLA/R Group 3 PE, Elective, and Exploratory For Students Planning For Teachers Teacher B MathHRMath Group 4 Math Group 1 LunchMath Group 2 Teacher C SS(LA)HRSS D1-Grp. 3 D2-Grp. 2 LA Group 4 LunchSS D1-Grp. 1 D2-Grp. 4 Teacher D SC (M) HRSC D1-Grp. 2 D2-Grp. 3 Math Group 3 LunchSC D1-Grp. 4 D2-Grp. 1

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65 Six-Teacher Team Times8:00-8:10 Block I 8:10-9:40 Block II 9:45-11:15 11:20- 11:50 Block III 11:55-1:25 Block IV 1:30-3:00 Teacher A LA/RHRLA/R Group 1 LA/R Group 2 LunchLA/R Group 3 PE, Elective, and Exploratory For Students Planning For Teachers Teacher B MathHRMath Group 3 Math Group 1 LunchMath Group 2 Teacher C SSHRSS D1-Grp. 2 D2-Grp. 4 SS D1-Grp. 3 D2-Grp. 5 LunchSS D1-Grp. 1 D-2-Grp.6 Teacher D SCHRSC D1-Grp. 4 D2-Grp. 2 SC D1-Grp. 5 D2-Grp. 3 LunchSC D1-Grp. 6 D-2-Grp.1 Teacher E LA/RHRLA/R Group 5 LA/R Group 6 LunchLA/R Group 4 Teacher F MathHRMath Group 6 Math Group 4 LunchMath Group 5

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66 Four-Block Master Schedule Times8:00-8:10 Block I 8:10-9:40 Block II 9:45-11:15 11:20- 11:50 Block III 11:55-1:25 Block IV 1:30-3:00 Grade 6 HRCore Block 1 Core Block 2 LunchCore Block 3 Planning Grade 7 HRCore Block 1 Core Block 2 LunchPlanningCore Block 3 Grade 8 HR Core Block 1 PlanningLunchCore Block 2 Core Block 3 PE/HDutyPlanning½ Grade 8 Lunch½ Grade 7 ½ Grade 6 Explore.And/orElectiveDutyPlanning½ Grade 8 Lunch½ Grade 7 ½ Grade 6

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67 Major Pros and Cons of Four- Block Pros n 90 minutes is provided daily for LA/Reading and Mathematics. n Students and teachers only take or teach three academic classes daily. n LA and Mathematics teachers instruct only three groups all year. n Adequate time is provided for SS/SC. n Adequate time is provided for Encore for most students. Cons n Students who select two year- long electives (i.e. Band and FL) have difficulty scheduling PE/H. n No clear time for re-teaching. n SS/SC teachers on six-teacher teams work with six sections all year long. n SS/SC teachers may not believe adequate time has been allocated.

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68 The Four-Block: Variation 1 Block IV Block III Block II Block I Elec./Exp.Elec./Exp. Science Social Studies LA/Reading Day 2 Day 1 MathematicsForeign Lang.

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69 Four-Block Schedule: Variation 2 Block IV Block III Block II Block I Elec./Exp.Elec./Exp. Science Social Studies Mathematics Day 2 Day 1 LA/ReadingForeign Lang.

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70 The Four-Block Schedule with a 9th Period Block IV Block III Block II Block I PE/Exp./Elec.PE/Exp./Elec. Science Social Studies Mathematics Language Arts and Reading Day 2 Day 1 PE/Exp./Elec./Interv./Enr. 9 th Period

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71 Block IV Block III Block II Block I Elective/Exploratory/PE Day 4 Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 LA/R LA/R LA/R Math Math Math SS SS SS SC SC SC The Four-Block Schedule: Sample Student Schedule (Equal Time in LA, M, SS, SC)

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72 The Four-Block Schedule: Sample Teacher Schedule (Equal Time in LA, M, SS, SC) Block IV Block III Block II Block I Elective/Exploratory/PE Day 4 Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 S1 S1 S1 S2 S2 S2 S3 S3 S3 S4 S4 S4

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73 Unequal Core and Encore Periods In 390-Minute Day Core 1 (60m) Elec./Exp. Elec./Exp. Science Social Studies LA/Reading Mathematics Core 2 (60m) Core 3 (60m) Core 4 (60m) Encore 1 (45 m) Encore 2 (45 m) Lunch Lunch (35m)

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74 Encore Rotations: 3 Choices in Two Periods (one choice meets daily; two choices meet every-other-day) Example 1: A DayB Day Period 1 Exploratory Rotation or Daily Elective (i.e. FL) Period 2PE B/O/ CH/GM

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75 Encore Rotations: 3 Choices in Two Periods (one choice meets daily; two choices meet every-other-day) Example 2: A DayB Day Period 1 B/O/Ch or Elective Period 2PEFL* *Two years of FL required to complete Carnegie Unit minutes.

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76 Encore Rotations: 3 Choices in Two Periods (one choice meets daily; two choices meet every-other-day) Example 3: A DayB Day Period 1PE Period 2 B/O/Ch or Elective FL* *Two years of FL required to complete Carnegie Unit minutes.

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77 3 Choices in Two Periods A DayB DayC Day Period 1Class 1Class 3Class 2 Period 2Class 2Class 1Class 4

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78 3 Choices in Two Periods: Example A DayB DayC Day Period 1PE/HBandSpanish Period 2SpanishPE/HBand

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79 When I die, I hope its during a lecture; the difference between life and death will be so small, that I wont notice it! (Anonymous Student)

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80 Teaching in a block schedule is like eternity, and eternity is spent in one of two places. John Strebe

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81 Three-Part Lesson-Design 1. Explanation (20-25 mins.) Objective Plan for the Day Connections to Previous Learning Homework Review Teach New Material 2. Application (40-45 mins.) 3. Synthesis (15-20 mins.) AssessmentRe-teaching Establish Connections and Relevance Closure

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82 Application Phase I. Cooperative Learning II. Paideia Seminars III. Laboratory IV. Simulation V. Models of Teaching A. Concept Development B. Inquiry C. Concept Attainment D. Synectics VI. Learning Centers or Stations VII. Technology VIII. Content Area Literacy Strategies

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The Four Circles of Engagement Physical Domain Movement Social/Emotional Domain Affiliation Cognitive Domain Intellectual Challenge Active Learning Strategies Social/Emotional Domain Choice

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84 How to Fail When Implementing a New Schedule I. Mess-up the Process A. Dont identify the goals. B. Start with an administrative edict. C. Let the study committee dominate. D. Dont involve the parents. E. Dont involve the students. F. Dont involve the central office. G. Dont involve the union.

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85 How to Fail When Implementing a New Schedule cont. H. Do an incomplete study. 1. Dont read and do research. 2. Dont visit other schools. 3. Dont do a mock master schedule. 4. Dont create sample teacher and student schedules. 5. Dont address benefits for both students and teachers.

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86 How to Fail When Implementing a New Schedule cont. II. Do Poor Planning A. Dont create pacing guides. B. Assume teachers will change instruction to fit the block without staff development assistance. C. Dont change school policies to be in line with the new schedule.

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87 How to Fail When Implementing a New Schedule cont. III. Create a Poorly Constructed Schedule A. Dont balance teams academically. B. Make sure you have unequal class times. C. Create short chunks of unusable time. D. Create split periods to run lunch. E. Make sure students cant take (fill in the blank) because of the schedule. IV. Dont Continue to do Staff Development After the first year. V. Dont Plan to Evaluate until Someone Asks for It.

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88 References n Canady, R. L. & Rettig, M. D. (Eds.) (1996). Teaching in the block: Strategies for engaging active learners. Larchmont, NY: Eye On Education. n Canady, R. L. & Rettig, M. D. (1995). Block scheduling: A catalyst for change in high school. Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education. n Marzano, R. J. (2003). What works in schools: Translating research into action. Alexandria,VA: ASCD. n Rettig, M. D. (2004). Directory of high school scheduling models in Virginia. A report of the "Study of innovative high school scheduling in Virginia". Harrisonburg, VA: James Madison University, n Rettig, M. D. & Canady, R. L. (2000). Scheduling strategies for middle schools. Larchmont, NY: Eye On Education. n Rettig, M. D., McCullough, L. L., Santos, K.E., and Watson, C.R. (2004). From rigorous standards to student achievement: A practical process. Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education.

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