Presentation on theme: "Table of Contents The Respiratory System Smoking and Your Health"— Presentation transcript:
1Table of Contents The Respiratory System Smoking and Your Health The Excretory System
2The Air You Breathe - The Respiratory System The air you breathe in contains several different gases, shown in the circle graph on the left. The air you breathe out contains the same gases, but in the amounts shown in the circle graph on the right.
3The Air You Breathe - The Respiratory System Reading Graphs: What does each wedge of the graphs represent?Percent of a gas breathed in or out
4The Air You Breathe - The Respiratory System Interpreting Data: Based on the data, which gas is used by the body? Explain.Oxygen; less oxygen is breathed out than breathed in—meaning that some must have been used by the body.
5The Air You Breathe - The Respiratory System Drawing Conclusions: Compare the percentage of carbon dioxide in inhaled air with the percentage in exhaled air. How can you account for the difference?There is a higher percentage of carbon dioxide in exhaled air. Carbon dioxide is a waste product of cellular activity.
6The Air You Breathe - The Respiratory System Inferring: Explain why the percentage of nitrogen is the same in both inhaled air and exhaled air.Nitrogen is not used by the body and is not a waste product.
7Respiratory System Functions - The Respiratory SystemRespiratory System FunctionsOxygen from the air and glucose from digested food are both carried to the cells by the blood. During respiration, oxygen reacts with glucose to release energy.
8The Path of Air - The Respiratory System As air travels from the outside environment to the lungs, it passes through the following structures: nose, pharynx, trachea, and bronchi.
9Gas Exchange - The Respiratory System After air enters an alveolus, oxygen passes through the wall of the alveolus and then through the capillary wall into the blood. Carbon dioxide and water pass from the blood into the alveoli.
10Surface Area - The Respiratory System Surface area refers to the total area of all the surfaces of a three-dimensional object. Consider a cube, which has six equal sides. Each side measures 2 cm by 2 cm.1. To find the surface area of the cube, first calculate the area of one of the six sides:Area = length X width = 2 cm X 2 cm = 4 cm2Each side has an area of 4 cm2.2. Then, add the areas of the six sides together:4 cm2 + 4 cm2 + 4 cm2 + 4 cm2 + 4 cm2 + 4 cm2 =24 cm2The surface area of the cube is 24 cm2.
11Surface Area - The Respiratory System Practice Problem Calculate the surface area of a cube whose side measures 3 cm.54 cm2
12How You Breathe - The Respiratory System When you breathe, the actions of your rib muscles and diaphragm expand or contract your chest. As a result, air flows in or out.
13Breathing Process Activity - The Respiratory SystemBreathing Process ActivityClick the Active Art button to open a browser window and access Active Art about the breathing process.
14Breathing and Speaking - The Respiratory SystemBreathing and SpeakingTwo vocal cords, folds of connective tissue that produce your voice, stretch across the opening of the larynx. Air moving over the vocal cords causes them to vibrate and produce sound.
15Sequencing - The Respiratory System As you read, make a flowchart that shows the path of air in the respiratory system. Write each step of the process in a separate box in the order in which it occurs.Path of AirAir enters the nose.To the pharynxTo the tracheaTo the bronchiTo the lungsTo the alveoli
17Chemicals in Tobacco Smoke - Smoking and Your HealthChemicals in Tobacco SmokeSome of the most deadly chemicals in tobacco smoke are tar, carbon monoxide, and nicotine.
18Health Problems and Smoking - Smoking and Your HealthHealth Problems and SmokingOver time, smokers can develop chronic bronchitis, emphysema, lung cancer, and atherosclerosis.
19Relating Cause and Effect - Smoking and Your HealthRelating Cause and EffectAs you read, identify the effects of smoking on the body. Write the information in a graphic organizer like the one below.EffectsIncrease in breathing and heart rate due to carbon monoxide in smokeCauseDamage to protective cilia and risk of cancer due to tarSmokingAddiction and increase in blood pressure due to nicotineRisk over time of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, lung cancer, and atherosclerosis
20Links on Respiratory Disorders - Smoking and Your HealthLinks on Respiratory DisordersClick the SciLinks button for links on respiratory disorders.
22Filtration of Wastes - The Excretory System Each kidney contains about a million tiny filtering units called nephrons.
23Previewing Visuals - The Excretory System Before you read, preview Figure 11. Then write three questions you have about the diagram in a graphic organizer like the one below. As you read, answer your questions.How the Kidneys Filter WastesQ. Where are nephrons located?A. In the kidneysQ. What three main materials are filtered out of the blood?A. Urea, water, glucoseQ. What happens to these filtered materials?A. Most of the water and glucose are reabsorbed. Most of the urea remains as urine.
24Links on Organs of Excretion - The Excretory SystemLinks on Organs of ExcretionClick the SciLinks button for links on organs of excretion.
25Click the Video button to watch a movie about sweat. - The Excretory SystemSweatClick the Video button to watch a movie about sweat.
27Graphic Organizer Blood flows into the nephron’s capillary cluster. Water, urea, glucose, and other materials are removed from the blood and flow into the capsule.From the capsule, the substances flow into a long tube.In the tube, glucose, water, and some other materials are reabsorbed.Urine flows from the kidneys through the ureters to the urinary bladder.