Presentation on theme: "Respiration and Excretion The Respiratory System Smoking and Your Health The Excretory System Table of Contents."— Presentation transcript:
Respiration and Excretion The Respiratory System Smoking and Your Health The Excretory System Table of Contents
Respiration and Excretion The Air You Breathe The air you breathe in contains several different gases, shown in the circle graph on the left. The air you breathe out contains the same gases, but in the amounts shown in the circle graph on the right. - The Respiratory System
Respiration and Excretion The Air You Breathe Percent of a gas breathed in or out Reading Graphs: What does each wedge of the graphs represent? - The Respiratory System
Respiration and Excretion The Air You Breathe Oxygen; less oxygen is breathed out than breathed inmeaning that some must have been used by the body. Interpreting Data: Based on the data, which gas is used by the body? Explain. - The Respiratory System
Respiration and Excretion The Air You Breathe There is a higher percentage of carbon dioxide in exhaled air. Carbon dioxide is a waste product of cellular activity. Drawing Conclusions: Compare the percentage of carbon dioxide in inhaled air with the percentage in exhaled air. How can you account for the difference? - The Respiratory System
Respiration and Excretion The Air You Breathe Nitrogen is not used by the body and is not a waste product. Inferring: Explain why the percentage of nitrogen is the same in both inhaled air and exhaled air. - The Respiratory System
Respiration and Excretion - The Respiratory System Respiratory System Functions Oxygen from the air and glucose from digested food are both carried to the cells by the blood. During respiration, oxygen reacts with glucose to release energy.
Respiration and Excretion - The Respiratory System The Path of Air As air travels from the outside environment to the lungs, it passes through the following structures: nose, pharynx, trachea, and bronchi.
Respiration and Excretion - The Respiratory System Gas Exchange After air enters an alveolus, oxygen passes through the wall of the alveolus and then through the capillary wall into the blood. Carbon dioxide and water pass from the blood into the alveoli.
Respiration and Excretion Surface Area Surface area refers to the total area of all the surfaces of a three-dimensional object. Consider a cube, which has six equal sides. Each side measures 2 cm by 2 cm. 1. To find the surface area of the cube, first calculate the area of one of the six sides: Area = length X width = 2 cm X 2 cm = 4 cm 2 Each side has an area of 4 cm Then, add the areas of the six sides together: 4 cm cm cm cm cm cm 2 = 24 cm 2 The surface area of the cube is 24 cm 2. - The Respiratory System
Respiration and Excretion Surface Area Practice Problem Calculate the surface area of a cube whose side measures 3 cm. 54 cm 2 - The Respiratory System
Respiration and Excretion - The Respiratory System How You Breathe When you breathe, the actions of your rib muscles and diaphragm expand or contract your chest. As a result, air flows in or out.
Respiration and Excretion Breathing Process Activity Click the Active Art button to open a browser window and access Active Art about the breathing process. - The Respiratory System
Respiration and Excretion - The Respiratory System Breathing and Speaking Two vocal cords, folds of connective tissue that produce your voice, stretch across the opening of the larynx. Air moving over the vocal cords causes them to vibrate and produce sound.
Respiration and Excretion Sequencing As you read, make a flowchart that shows the path of air in the respiratory system. Write each step of the process in a separate box in the order in which it occurs. Path of Air Air enters the nose. To the pharynx To the trachea To the bronchi To the lungs To the alveoli - The Respiratory System
Respiration and Excretion End of Section: The Respiratory System
Respiration and Excretion - Smoking and Your Health Chemicals in Tobacco Smoke Some of the most deadly chemicals in tobacco smoke are tar, carbon monoxide, and nicotine.
Respiration and Excretion - Smoking and Your Health Health Problems and Smoking Over time, smokers can develop chronic bronchitis, emphysema, lung cancer, and atherosclerosis.
Respiration and Excretion Relating Cause and Effect As you read, identify the effects of smoking on the body. Write the information in a graphic organizer like the one below. Smoking Increase in breathing and heart rate due to carbon monoxide in smoke Damage to protective cilia and risk of cancer due to tar Addiction and increase in blood pressure due to nicotine Risk over time of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, lung cancer, and atherosclerosis - Smoking and Your Health Cause Effects
Respiration and Excretion Links on Respiratory Disorders Click the SciLinks button for links on respiratory disorders. - Smoking and Your Health
Respiration and Excretion End of Section: Smoking and Your Health
Respiration and Excretion - The Excretory System Filtration of Wastes Each kidney contains about a million tiny filtering units called nephrons.
Respiration and Excretion Previewing Visuals Before you read, preview Figure 11. Then write three questions you have about the diagram in a graphic organizer like the one below. As you read, answer your questions. Q. Where are nephrons located? A. In the kidneys Q. What three main materials are filtered out of the blood? A. Urea, water, glucose How the Kidneys Filter Wastes Q. What happens to these filtered materials? A. Most of the water and glucose are reabsorbed. Most of the urea remains as urine. - The Excretory System
Respiration and Excretion Links on Organs of Excretion Click the SciLinks button for links on organs of excretion. - The Excretory System
Respiration and Excretion Sweat Click the Video button to watch a movie about sweat. - The Excretory System
Respiration and Excretion End of Section: The Excretory System
Respiration and Excretion Graphic Organizer Blood flows into the nephrons capillary cluster. Water, urea, glucose, and other materials are removed from the blood and flow into the capsule. From the capsule, the substances flow into a long tube. In the tube, glucose, water, and some other materials are reabsorbed. Urine flows from the kidneys through the ureters to the urinary bladder.
Respiration and Excretion End of Section: Graphic Organizer