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Living or nonliving? Biological?

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Presentation on theme: "Living or nonliving? Biological?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Living or nonliving? Biological?
Viruses Living or nonliving? Biological?

2 Virus Discovery Agents not seen with light microscope
Pass through filters that trap bacteria (<0.2µm) Are these toxins or poisons? ”Virus” - Latin for “poison”

3 What is a Virus? Different from “living” MOs & cells
Submicroscopic nm Seen with electron microscope Obligate intracellular parasites No genes for metabolic machinery and energy ±Genes for nucleic acid synthesis Biochemically RNA or DNA, not both No small ions, polysaccharides (sugars) ±Virus modifided lipid membranes from host cell (enveloped viruses or naked viruses)

4 Animal Viruses

5 Virus Replication Kinetics
Growth curve of bacteria and virus very different Virus - from assembly of pre-formed components MOs - from increase in sum of components, reproduce by cell division Viruses don’t “grow” or undergo division Bacterial growth curve Viral growth curve

6 Virus Nucleic Acid Single (ss) or double stranded (ds)
RNA or DNA – genetic information Single (ss) or double stranded (ds) Linear, circular, or nicked Unsegmented (single molecule) or segmented (two or more moleclues) ssRNA may be plus (+) or minus (-) sense (+)RNA genome can serve as mRNA and directly translated into protein (-)RNA genome cannot serve as mRNA and cannot be translated directly into protein

7 Virus Genome

8 Virus Protein Capsomer - individual protein subunits of capsid
Capsid – “coat”, outer structure made up of protein Capsomer - individual protein subunits of capsid Function of capsid: Protect nucleic acid from harsh environment Involved in attachment to host cell

9 Virus Capsid Two basic capsid structures:
Icosahedral (spherical polygon) Helical (elongated rod)

10 Virus Envelope Naked virus - only nucleic acid and capsid
Enveloped virus - outer lipid membrane layer Envelope from host cell membrane plus virus glycoprotein Enveloped human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

11 Virus Exits Cell By Budding
Enveloped virus acquire cell plasma membrane as exits host cell via budding Virus glycoprotein (ligand) in envelope play role in attachment to host cell (receptor) Mediate fusion of virus envelope with cell membrane during virus entry into host cell

12 Virus Infection and Attachment
Host must contain cell receptor that virus binds to in initiating infection Virus ligand binds to cell receptor Ligand on capsid of naked virus and on outside of envelope virus gp 120 (the ligand) on HIV binds to CD4 (receptor) on T lymphocyte or CCR5 on macrophage

13 Virus Replication In A Host Cell
Host cell must also have cellular metabolic machinery that virus needs for replication Host range of virus is spectrum of host cells that virus can infect and replicate in If virus successfully replicates in host cell, infection productive and host cell is permissive for virus If cell lacks something required for viral replication, infection abortive or non-productive and host cell is non-permissive for virus

14 Virus Replication Cycle
Attachment - ligand on virus binds to receptor on host cell Penetration - virus gets inside host cell Naked virus: either receptor mediated endocytosis or formation of pore Enveloped virus: through fusion event Uncoating - separation of capsid and release of nucleic acid into cell cytoplasm or nucleus; preparation of viral transcription and nucleic acid replication Biosynthesis - viral proteins and viral nucleic acid replicated

15 Virus Biosynthesis RNA viruses - bring in own enzymes for transcribing mRNA and replicating their genome Cells do not contain enzymes for RNA as a template Most RNA viruses replicate in cytoplasm DNA viruses - either use host enzymes or bring in own enzymes to transcribe mRNA and replicate genome Retroviruses - unique RNA virus bring in enzyme called reverse transcriptase (RT) RT makes a dsDNA copy of viral ssRNA genome DNA then moves to nucleus where incorporated into cell DNA, then viral genes transcribe mRNA and translated

16 Virus Replication Cycle
Assembly - viral components self-assemble into new viruses, occurs when sufficient number of viral proteins and viral genomes made Release - newly made virus exit host cell by lysis or budding

17 Classification of Virus
One most commonly used virus classification is Baltimore scheme Based on relationship between viral genome and its mRNA needed for translation

18 Virus Infection and Pathology of Host Cell
Even though can’t see virus, can see effects that virus has on host cell Death of cell – often occurs on release of virus Cytopathic effects – visible effects on cell caused by viral replication (plaques, rounded, syncytia) Cancer (cell transformation) – loss of cell growth control; require virus integrates all or part of genome into cell DNA

19 Overview of Virus Infectious Diseases By Organ Systems
Skin and Soft Tissue Infections Ocular Infections Upper and Lower Respiratory Tract Infections (URTI, LRTI) Viremia and Sepsis Infections of Central Nervous System (CNS) Gastrointestinal Infections (GI) Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD)

20 Skin and Soft Tissue Infections
Warts (Papilloma virus) Smallpox (Variola virus) Chickenpox/Shingles (Varicella/Zoster virus) Measles (Rubeola virus) German measles (Rubella virus) Cold sores (Herpes Simplex virus)

21 Warts Human papilloma virus (dsDNA) Spread by direct contact
Benign tumors with abnormal uncontrolled growth but stops after period of time Some infections result in cell transformation and malignant tumors Treated with acids or cryotherapy

22 Smallpox Variola virus (dsDNA) Transmitted by respiratory route
Variola major (mortality >20%) Variola minor (mortality < 1%) Transmitted by respiratory route Virus moves from respiratory tract, bloodstream, skin to cause pustular rash that leaves scars Symptoms include fever, malaise, severe backache and abdominal pain WHO vaccination program successfully eradicated disease Use in bioterrorism?

23 Chickenpox and Shingles
Varicella-zoster virus (herpesvirus, dsDNA) Infection via respiratory route Incubation ~ 2 weeks, but infected individual contagious at this stage Virus localizes in skin to cause vesicular rash with vesicles that fill with pus, rupture, and form scabs After chickenpox, virus remains latent in nerve cells and can be reactivated later in life to cause shingles (zoster)

24 Chickenpox and Shingles
Shingles characterized by severe pain due to inflammation of sensory nerves around one side of nerve trunk Vaccine to prevent chickenpox now available

25 Measles Rubeola virus (paramyxovirus, ssRNA) Highly contagious
Spread by respiratory route Incubation days Symptoms similar to common cold plus papular rash (small, raised spots) Koplik spots (red patches with central white specks) in the oral cavity are diagnostic

26 Measles Severe complications include encephalitis, pneumonia, ear infections, and even death May later cause subacute sclerosing panencephalitis with progressive nerve destruction and death Vaccine available (part of MMR – Measles, Mumps, and Rubella) Often fatal infection of infants in developing countries due to underlying malnutrition with >1 million deaths/year

27 German Measles Rubella virus (Togavirus, ssRNA) Three day measles
Transmitted via respiratory route Symptoms include slight fever and rash of small red spots Infection during first trimester of pregnancy can lead to birth defects (deafness, eye cataracts, heart defects, mental retardation) or death of the fetus Vaccination via MMR

28 Cold Sores Herpes Simplex virus (HSV), type I (dsDNA)
Characterized by lesions of oral mucous membranes Following initial infection, virus remains latent in nerves Physical or emotional stress may cause reactivation of latent infection

29 Ocular Infections HSV, type I Corneal lesions
Can lead to blindness or CNS invasion

30 Upper & Lower Respiratory Tract Infections
Common cold Influenza

31 Common Cold Rhinoviruses (ssRNA) and Coronaviruses (ssRNA)
>200 different types of rhinoviruses can cause common cold! Spread by respiratory secretions on hands and inhalation Symptoms include sneezing, nasal discharge, and congestion Emerging pathogen is SARS-CoV (Severe acute respiratory syndrome-Coronavirus)

32 Influenza Influenza virus (Orthomyxovirus, segmented, ssRNA)
Transmitted via respiratory secretion Symptoms include fever, chills, headache, and general muscle aches Viruses are continually changing antigenic structure by “drift” and “shift” making it difficult to develop host immunity and effective vaccine Drift occurs by RNA mutation Shift occurs by genetic recombination or gene reassortment during dual infection of a host

33 Viremia & Sepsis Infectious mononucleosis - lymphocytes
Blood and lymph systems Myocarditis – inflammation of heart muscle Infectious mononucleosis - lymphocytes Viral hemorrhagic fever – rash, fever

34 Myocarditis Commonly caused by Coxsackievirus (ss RNA)
Caused by many different MOs Commonly caused by Coxsackievirus (ss RNA) Via respiratory route or GI tract Gains access to heart via bloodstream or lymphatics

35 Infectious Mononucleosis
Epstein-Barr virus (Herpesvirus, dsDNA) Transmission via saliva, “kissing disease” Symptoms include fever, sore throat, swollen lymph nodes, general weakness Like all herpesvirus, after primary infection it remains latent, in B lymphocytes Linked to three cancers Hodgkins disease Burkitt’s lymphoma Nasopharyngeal carcinoma

36 Infections of CNS Meningitis and encephalitis
Infection of membrane that cover brain and spinal cord and infection of brain By many different viruses Virus may enter through blood, and need to cross “blood-brain barrier” Other virus move along peripheral nerve into CNS Viral meningitis often called “aseptic meningitis” because no bacteria or fungi found in CSF Poliomyelitis Rabies

37 Poliomyelitis Poliovirus (Picornavirus, ssRNA)
Three poliovirus serotypes Transmission occurs via GI tract after ingestion of fecal contaminated water Symptoms include fever, sore throat, and headache In 1-2% of cases virus penetrates capillary walls and enters CNS where it multiplies in motor nerve cells eventually killing them and causing paralysis Two vaccines used: Salk – wild type virus inactivated by formalin Sabin – oral, live, attenuated virus ( recent reactivation to virulence resulted in use of inactivated vaccine for first dose followed by two oral doses for infant vaccination)

38 Rabies Rabies virus (bullet-shaped Rhabdovirus, ssRNA)
Transmission via saliva of rabid animal Virus travels along peripheral nerve to CNS where it causes encephalitis Symptoms include painful spasms of muscles of mouth and pharynx when swallowing liquids (hydrophobia) Treatment is with rabies immune globulin followed by active immunization

39 Viral Hemorrhagic Fever
Caused by several different viruses Ebola virus causes this type of disease Transmitted from animal to human, then human to human Infects and destroys blood vessels High mortality rate from hemorrhaging and shock Natural animal host is unknown

40 GI Infections Mumps (parotitis) – salivary gland
Hepatitis - inflammation of the liver Viral gastroenteritis – intestine

41 Mumps Mumps virus (Paramyxovirus, ssRNA)
Transmission via salivary secretions and portal of entry is respiratory tract Incubation days – during this time virus moves from respiratory tract, bloodstream, to parotid (salivary) gland and teste in males Symptoms include swelling, fever, painful swallowing, occasionally sterility Vaccination is via MMR

42 “Infectious” Hepatitis
Hepatitis A virus (ssRNA) Transmitted via fecal-oral route Symptoms include anorexia, malaise, nausea, diarrhea, abdominal discomfort, fever and chills for 2-21 days Two-thirds of infected individuals have jaundice indicative of liver damage Recovery complete with no chronic disease

43 “Serum” Hepatitis Hepatitis B virus (dsDNA) Hepatitis C virus (ssRNA)
Transmitted via body secretions (blood, saliva, STD) and needle sharing among drug abusers Incubation 4-26 weeks Symptoms range from subclinical to severe fever and headache with jaundice Most recover completely, but 10% chronic carriers with high incidence of liver disease and cancer Recombinant vaccine is available Hepatitis C virus (ssRNA) Disease and transmission similar to HBV No vaccine available

44 Viral Gastroenteritis
In children, most commonly caused by rotavirus (dsRNA) or adenovirus (ds DNA) Symptoms include fever, diarrhea, vomiting In developing countries, high mortality among infants resulting in >1 million deaths/year due to underlying malnutrition and fluid loss

45 STD Genital herpes Genital warts

46 Genital Herpes Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type II (dsDNA)
Incubation ~ 1 week Asymptomatic or symptoms of painful vesicular lesions containing infectious fluid Becomes latent in nerve cells and may be reactivated to cause same lesions in primary infection Can cross the placenta to infect fetus leading to mental retardation, defective sight and hearing Fetus can also be infected during delivery, therefore all women positive for this virus routinely deliver by C-section

47 Genital Warts Human papilloma viruses (dsDNA) Benign warts and tumors
Some strains cause malignant tumors, cervical cancer Vaccine (Gardasil) for these virus strains to prevent cervical cancer

48 Subviral Particles: Prions
Proteinaceous infectious particle No nucleic acid Self-replicating by misfolding of normal cellular protein Formerly called “slow viral infections” Neurological disease in mammals, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE), eventual death Kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease Scapie in sheep Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (Mad cow disease) Chronic wasting disease in deer and elk

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