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Presentation on theme: "THE SKIN B&S CHAPTER 6."— Presentation transcript:


2 Purpose of the skin It’s the largest organ in the body
Used for protection against drying (dehydration) and pathogens Regulates temperature Sensory – nerve-endings Absorption and excretion

3 The skin includes… Skin is associated with structures known as appendages which include glands, hair and nails An appendage is anything attached, like the nails, hair and glands

4 Other names for skin Covering Cutaneous
Skin sheds, when it sheds, it’s ridding the body of pathogens that are on it

5 Facts about skin Skin DOES NOT BREATHE
The pores of the epidermis only serve as an outlet for perspiration from the sweat glands and sebum (oil) from the sebaceous glands THEY ARE NOT USED FOR EXCHANGE OF GASES

6 Skin consists of 2 layers:
1) Epidermis 2) Dermis

7 Epidermis Outer most portion, it’s the surface layer of the skin
Epidermis is made up of epithelial cells and contain NO blood vessels These epidermal cells are constantly lost through wear and tear

8 Is the epidermis living or non-living?
Non-living, but because there are no living blood vessels in the epidermis, THE ONLY LIVING CELLS ARE LOCATED IN THE DEEPEST LAYER OF THE EPIDERMIS CALLED: STRATUM GERMINATIVUM

9 Stratum germinativum Deepest layer of the epidermis where nourishment is provided by capillaries It’s known as the “growing layer” Cells in the stratum germinativum are constantly dividing, producing daughter cells which get pushed upward to the surface

10 Stratum germinativum

11 What happens when these cells get pushed up to the surface?
The surface cells die from the gradual loss of nourishment and they undergo changes What changes you ask?

12 These cells develop keratin which serves to thicken and protect skin
By the time the epithelial cells reach the surface, they change in character

13 They become flat and horny, forming the uppermost layer of the epidermis called the…
Stratum Corneum – Does NOT contain blood vessels. But does contain nerves, hair follicles, sebaceous and sudoriferous glands

14 MELANIN These are the cells that are formed in the deepest layer of the epidermis Melanin is a dark pigment that colors the skin

15 Melanin Pigment (melanin) produced by melanocytes
Color is yellow to brown to black Amount of melanin produced depends upon genetic and exposure to sunlight Slide 4.12 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

16 Freckles Irregular patches of melanin

17 THE DERMIS, 2nd layer of skin
Also called the corium or the true skin Is make up of elastic connective tissue Is well-supplied with blood vessels and nerves Stretches dramatically like in pregnancy

18 Appendages in the dermis
Most of the appendages of the skin incl. sweat glands (sudoriferous) , oil glands (sebaceuos) and hair, are located in the dermis, they may extend down into the SQ layer too

19 Thickness of dermis Varies in different areas
Sole of feet and palms of hands are covered in thick layers of skin Eyelids are covered with thin delicate layers

20 Fingerprints Are formed by papillae which are extensions that form a distinct pattern of ridges on the surface of thick skin. They extend upward allowing blood vessels to get closer to the surface cells These papillae help to prevent from slipping when grasping an object These are your fingerprints, they are determined by heredity

21 Subcutaneous Layer The dermis rests on the sub-Q layer
This layer connects the skin to the surface muscles It consists of loose conn. Tissue and lrg. Amts of adipose tissue, the fat serves as insulation Continuous bundles of elastic fibers connect the sub-Q tissue with the dermis, there's no clear boundary between the two

22 Subcutaneous layer

23 There are major blood vessels that supply the skin in this layer
This layer is rich in nerve endings Thickness varies, thicker in abd than in eye lid Sebaceous glands and hair roots extend here

24 APPENDAGES Sudoriferous glands – or sweat glands are coiled, tubelike structures located in the dermis and sub-Q tissue These glands function to regulate body temp through evaporation of sweat from the body surface

25 A 2nd Sudoriferous gland…
Is located in the armpits and groin area When there is stress or sexual stimulation, these glands release their secretions through the hair folicles This secretion, broken down by bacteria, produces body odor…peee-u

26 Modified Sweat Gland The ceruminous glands in the ear canal produce ear wax or cerumen

27 Another appendage… Sebaceous Glands – are sac-like in structure, their oily secretions called sebum, lubricates the skin and hair to prevent drying. The ducts of these glands, open to hair follicles

28 Vernix caseosa Produced by the sebaceous glands, it’s a covering that resembles cream cheese to protect newborns at birth

29 Blackheads Are a combo of keratin and dried sebum or oil that collect at the opening of the sebaceous gland If these glands become infected, pimples result

30 Sebaceous Cysts When sebaceous glands become blocked by accumulated sebum or oil, a sac of the secretion forms and grows in size, surgery may be needed to remove these

31 Hair Is made of keratin and is NOT living
Each hair develops within a sheath called a follicle and new hair is formed from cells at the bottom of the follicles

32 Goosebumps Are what they are…attached to hair follicles, muscles contract, raising the hair on the body This response is not import. To humans but in animals, it helps animals with furry coats to conserve heat

33 Nails Protective structure made of hard keratin
Nails are affected by general health. Changes including abnormal color, thickness, shape or texture occur in chronic diseases such as heart, peripheral vasc diseases, malnutrition and anemia. Nailbeds should BE PINK, not blue

34 Skin can absorb and excrete
Substances such as medication can be absorbed through the skin through a dermal patch Minimal amt of excretion through the skin occurs. H2O and electrolytes are perspired out of the skin

35 Vitamin D Vit. D is needed for the development and maintenance of bone tissue Vit D is manufactured in the skin under the effects of ultra violet rays from the sun

36 Skin Homeostatic Imbalances
Burns Tissue damage and cell death caused by heat, electricity, UV radiation, or chemicals Associated dangers Dehydration Electrolyte imbalance Circulatory shock Slide 4.25 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

37 Burns to the skin… 1st degree – involves the epidermis, it becomes red and painful, like sun burn Treatment: bathing the wound in cold water


39 2nd degree burn – penetrates into deeper layers and often causes a blister to form
Examples: severe sunburns or scalding with hot water Silvadene cream

40 2nd degree burn

41 3rd degree – is full thickness burn, is the most serious
3rd degree – is full thickness burn, is the most serious. Usually involved underlying tissues such as muscle and connective tissue

42 3rd degree burn


44 RULE OF NINE’S rule of nines - a method of estimating the extent of body surface that has been burned in an adult, dividing the body into sections of 9 per cent or multiples of 9 per cent. Rule of nines.

45 Color of skin Melanin gives skin it’s color, skin should be pink

46 Pallor Pallor – is pale colored skin often caused by reduced blood flow Most easily noted in lips, nail beds, and mucous membranes

47 Flushing Redness of the skin related to fever
Most noticeable in the face or neck

48 Cyanosis Bluish discoloration in skin
Due to not enough oxygen circulating in the blood This is a symptom of heart failure or of breathing problems such as asthma or respiratory obstruction

49 Jaundice Yellow discoloration of the skin
May be due to the presence of excessive quantities of bile pigment called bilirubin, in the blood

50 Lesion Is any wound or local damage to tissue
A surface lesion is called a rash A raised lesion is called an eruption

51 Terms used to describe surface skin lesions:
Macules – spots that are neither raised nor depressed. They are typical of measles and descriptive of freckles Papules – firm raised areas as in some stages of chicken pox. Pimples are papules Nodule – a large firm papule

52 Vesicle – blisters or small sacs full of fluid like chicken pox
Pustules – vesicles filled with pus, can develop in chicken pox

53 Deeper lesions Deeper lesions may develop from surface lesions or may be caused by trauma

54 Deep injuries to the skin
Excoriation – scratch of the skin surface Laceration – rough, jagged wound made by the tearing of the skin Ulcer – a sore associated with disintegration and death of tissues Fissure – a crack in the skin, like in athletes foot

55 Excoriation Laceration

56 Ulceration Fissure

57 Dermatitis Inflammation of the skin
May be d/t irritants such as poison oak or ivy, detergents, strong acids or other chemicals

58 Treatment of dermatitis
Prompt removal of the irritant is most effective Washing thoroughly with soap and water to wash away the plant oil

59 Atopic Dermatitis or eczema
Intense itching and skin inflammation Redness (erythema) Blisters (vesicles) Pimple-like lesions (papules) Scaling and crusting of skin

60 When does eczema start? Occurs first in childhood and recurs throughout life Skin may be sensitive to soaps or detergents Person may be subject to allergic disorders like asthma, hayfever and food allergies

61 Impetigo Acute, contagious disease of staphylococcal or streptococcal origin Can cause death in newborn infants It’s a blister-like lesion filled with pus that contain millions of virulent bacteria One can infect and re-infect himself and others..need antibiotics


63 Alopecia baldness

64 Other disorders of the skin…
Carbuncle – a pus producing lesion formed from an infected boil. These involve skin and sub-Q tissues and have numerous drainage channels that extend to the skin surface

65 Herpes Simplex Virus Characterized by formation of watery vesicles (cold sores, fever blisters) on the skin and mucous membranes including the genital area

66 Shingles (herpes zoster virus)
Virus is seen in adults and is caused by same virus that causes chicken pox Infection follows nerve pathways producing small lesions on the skin Pain, increased sensitivity and itching are common symptoms that usually last longer than a year

67 What to treat herpes virus with?
Antivirals like acyclovir or Zovirax P.O. takes away itching, sensitivity and lesions IS NOT A CURE OF THE VIRUS, only helps with symptoms

68 Decubitis Bed sore d/t decreased circulation
Treatment: frequent position changes, adequate nutrition and if sore is present, aggressive skin treatment

69 Affects of aging on skin
Loss of fat and collagen=wrinkles Skin becomes transparent and can tear easily Decreased pigment esp. in hair (grey hair) and in skin, except in some areas such as hands Decreased sweat glands Hardening of nails





74 Jaundice

75 Jaundice

76 Cyanosis

77 Macule

78 Terms used to describe surface skin lesions:
Macules – spots that are neither raised nor depressed. They are typical of measles and descriptive of freckles Papules – firm raised areas as in some stages of chicken pox. Pimples are papules Nodule – a large firm papule

79 Papule

80 Vesicle

81 Pustule

82 Excoriation

83 Laceration

84 Ulcer

85 Fissure on Heel

86 Cold Sores Herpes Simplex
Boils- Furuncle Cold Sores Herpes Simplex

87 Basal Cell Carcinoma

88 Malignant Melanoma

89 ABCD Rule for moles or nevus
A = Asymmetry Two sides of pigmented mole do not match B = Border irregularity Borders of mole are not smooth C = Color Different colors in pigmented area D = Diameter Spot is larger then 6 mm in diameter Slide 4.32 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

90 Impetigo Psoriasis

91 Shingles- Herpes Zoster

92 Athlete’s Foot


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