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Chapter 5 Abbreviations & Systems of Measurement

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1 Chapter 5 Abbreviations & Systems of Measurement
Pharmacology Chapter 5 Abbreviations & Systems of Measurement


3 Abbreviations A shortened version of a word or phrase
Nurses MUST BE CAREFUL when reading or writing abbreviations If you are unsure NEVER GUESS

4 Institute for Safe Medicine Practice (ISMP)
They monitor medication administration and identify practices that have contributed to med errors ISMP decides along with JCAHO what abbreviations are acceptable

5 Never use periods …….. If poorly written, an order that contains a period (.) can be mistaken for the number 1, or it could cause an error in dosage Such as 1. could mean 1 mg, others can misinterpret

6 A medication order to be transcribed into the MAR
Contains 6 parts: 1. Current date 2. Patient’s name 3. Medication name 4. Dosage or amount of medication to be given 5. Route or manner of administration such as “IV” or “PO” 6. Time to be administered, or frequency

7 Signature Medication orders must ALWAYS be signed by the physician
Do NOT administer any meds until the signature is in writing, perhaps the Dr. may not be done writing the order and he had to leave This is your license DON’T LOOSE IT

8 Verbal Order Usually during an emergency or if the Dr. is caught up at the bedside of another pt, he will verbally tell you the order he would like carried out. The nurse fills out the Drs. Order form with the order told to her and after the order writes “V.O. Dr. Smith/K. Nye RN” and the nurse signs this order

9 Telephone Order If the Physician cannot come to the floor to write the order, it can be taken as a verbal order Usually an RN must take the order (check your institution). Some facilities require 2 RNs to listen on speaker for the order The nurse takes the order, writes it out and writes “T.O. Dr. Smith/K. Nye RN” at the end of the order and the nurse signs the order

10 POLICY Please always be aware of what the policy of your floor requires Policies vary from institution to institution Remember, it’s your name that’s in writing “CYA” and don’t loose your hard-earned license

11 Pgs 58 and 59 Indicate which meds and abbreviations are or can cause errors DO NOT MEMORIZE THIS YOU MUST MEMORIZE THE APPROVED ABBREVIATIONS ON PG 56. This will be a big portion of the test for this chapter YOU ALREADY HAVE THIS SHEET

12 Prescriptions It is the nurse’s responsibility to make sure all needed information is on a prescription also: 1. Date 2. Pt’s Name 3. Medication name 4. Dosage or amount of medication 5. Route or manner of administration (IV), (PO) 6. Time or frequency to be administered 7. Dr signature

13 DEA Number Each prescription has a place for a DEA number (if the med is a narcotic) It is your job (unfortunately) to make sure this number is there if it is a narcotic. Once the pt leaves with the script YOU GAVE HIM, he could be in pain and needing to fill his script STAT, he will go to the pharmacy and not have all the needed info. And the med. Won’t be filled…angry, sick, hurting pt

14 Refill space Every prescription has a “refill” space that needs SOME TYPE OF INFORMATION PUT THERE If there are no refills, then put “NO”, “NONE” or even a circle with a line through it If you don’t, Pt. might

If you can’t read the prescription, chances are nobody else can either. You may have to return it to the Dr. for a re-print Today, prescriptions are being generated from a computer

16 State Legislation Has now passed a law stating that all prescriptions must be typed Numbers must be written out and written down such as “ten (10)” All Physicians MUST print their name under their signature Today, scripts are being computer generated…this is good

17 3 Types of measurements used in the U.S. today
1. Metric System 2. Household Measurement 3. Apothecary

18 Metric System Is the preferred system of measurement in the U.S.
Metric system was used by the French in the late 18th century The Metric System is the international standard for weights and measures

19 Household Measurements
“HOUSEHOLD” is also another approved standard of measure such as: 1 tsp= 5cc

20 Household vs. Metric System
Both methods are sometimes incorporated to make administering medicine easier and more accurate

21 Apothecary System Is the system that pharmacists use
Nurses MUST be familiar with all 3 in order to effectively administer meds

22 Apothecary Measures: Fluids Liquid measures
Measurement of solids or solid weight

23 Abbreviations for apothecary system
Grain gr (1gr = 60mg) (1/150gr = 0.4mg) Minim m, min Drop gtt Dram dr Ounce oz Pint pt Quart gt

24 Apothecary Meds Some meds are still ordered in grains using the Apothecary measurement system: Aspirin Acetaminophen Iron Phenobarbital

25 Using the Metric System to measure liquids
To measure liter (L) and Milliliter (ml)

26 Using the Metric System to measure solid weights
Includes: Grams (G) Milligrams (mg)

27 When converting from the apothecary system to the metric system
ALWAYS consult a conversion table or the pharmacist to avoid dangerous errors Example: How many drams are in 5 ml = 1 (1 dram = 5ml)

28 Biggest Mistake Is to think you don’t need any resources
YOU ARE HUMAN, NOBODY IS PERFECT Your first med error will be devastating but it will happen in some way, shape, or form Follow all of the steps you are learning and you will go far

29 The End

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