51gram of fat provides ? Calories Generally, no more than 20-35% of total calories should come from fat (10% or less from saturated fat sources)
6Functions of fat Provides energy when one cannot eat Fats are a necessary part of the cell wallsFats contain essential fatty acids and act as carriers for fat soluble Vits A, D, E, KAdipose fat protects vital organs and bonesFat insulates against the cold
7Sources Animals – meats, butter, cheese, cream, milk, egg yolks Plants – cooking oils made from sunflower, safflower, sesame seed, corn, peanuts, soybeans, olives, coconut, nuts and chocolate
8Sources Visible fats:purchased and used as fats like butter and oils Invisible fats: found in other foods, meat, fried foods, pastries
9Classification of fats Most lipids in the body are triglycerides.These are in body cells and circulate in the bloodYou can test these levels in the blood to let you know if you need to cut back on the fat in your dietStill not sure what a triglyceride is?
10What is a Triglyceride exactly? 3 fatty acids attached to a framework of glycerol…chemistryThese are mostly lipids in the blood
11Triglycerides This is the chemical name for fats Triglycerides are the primary form of fat in foodTriglycerides combine with glycerol to supply energy to the bodyTriglycerides allow fat soluble vitamins to be transportedTriglycerides end up forming into adipose tisse that protects the body
12Fatty AcidsThis is what “fat” breaks down into in order to be able to be digestedWe can get essential fatty acids in our diet.
13Classification of fatty acids Fatty acids are classified in 2 ways:EssentialNonessential
14Essential Fatty AcidsEFA’s are fatty acids that our body cannot make by itselfWe obtain them through dietThey are essential to the body and it is essential that you get them through your diet
15Linoleic acidIs one of three fatty acids essential for humans found in our dietLinoleic acid is found in safflower, corn and sunflower oils (polyunsaturated veg.oils)
16Saturated fatsHas to do with how many hydrogen atoms each carbon atom carries…. chemistryAnimal foods, chocolate and coconut contain more saturated fatty acids than unsaturated.
17Saturated fatsFoods containing a high proportion of saturated fats are usually solid at room tempThese are responsible for atherosclerosis or plaque in the arteries
18MonounsaturatedOne place among the carbon atoms where there are fewer H atoms attached…chemistryExamples are avacado, cashews, olive oil, peanut oil
19Polyunsaturated2 or more places where the carbon atom has fewer H atoms attachedExamples: cooking oils made from safflower, sunflower or sesame seeds or from soybeans or corn, soft margarines whose major ingredient is veg. oil, mayo made with oil, and fish
20Polyunsaturated FatsThese are the omega 3 fatty acids, these help lower the risk for heart diseaseIf you had a choice to eat monosaturated vs. poly saturated, you would choose poly because our body uses fat for energy, polys are bigger and will last longer, but we should still eat both of these
21Trans fatty acidsProduced by adding H atoms to a liquid fat making it solidLike when H atoms are added to a liquid, it gets firm like butter or margarineThese are not good for you
22CholesterolIs a fat-like substance that exists in animal foods and body cellsCholesterol is made in the liverCholesterol is necessary in the dietLipitor helps to stop the production of cholesterol within the liver if a person makes too much
23Sources of cholesterol Organ meats * coconutEgg yolkFat meatsShellfishDairyOlivesavacodos
24Trouble with cholesterol It’s a contributing factor in heart disease due to hypercholesterolemiaCauses atherosclerosis which is a soft build up of stuff sand then it hardens turning it to arteriosclerosis or plaque
25Athersclerosis vs. Arteriosclerosis Soft build-up of cholesterol and fat in blood vessels, can be seen as streaks in the artery – this is atherosclerosisEventually over the years, this soft stuff gets hard and causes reduced space for blood flow= M.I. Or CVA – this is arteriosclerosis
26How do we unclog the vessels? Balloon angioplasty inflation of a balloon to push the plaque away, then balloon is removedStent keeps vessel wide openScrapping /Roto-rooter type device that breaks up the hard plaque and vacuums it out instantly
27Cholesterol levelsSerum (blood) levels should not exceed 200mg/dl of blood
28Cumulative effects of high cholesterol cause trouble therefore… Eat healthierEat low fat foodsEat foods higher in polyunsaturated foods that contain omega 3’sIncrease exerciseWt loss
29What happens to fat in digestion? When fat enters the stomach, what happens to it?
30The stomach acts on fats by sending out gastric lipase to emulsify the fat (like cream and egg yolks)
31Fat leaves the stomach and goes where? Through the pylorus , through the pyloric sphincter and into the small intestine called what?
32Duodenum….there the liver shoots out bile to help further emulsify fat, the _______ takes bile to store it and the pancreas sends out pancreatic enzymes to do what?
33Pancreatic enzymes turn fats into fatty acids and glycerol to make them smaller and easier to digest so that absorption through or into where?
34Change words around on your slides here Through the lacteals , out of the intestine walls and on into cells and then to the liverBut there is 1 problem…
35If fats are insoluble in water…. How do fats get into the blood after they go through the liver?
36Special carriers must be provided for the fats to be absorbed and transported by the blood to body cellsThese special carriers are called “lipoproteins”Lipo means fat and proteins are strong and big enough to take the fat to the bloodstream and cells
372 types of lipoproteins occur LDL – low density lipoproteins – carries cholesterol TO tissues(Bad cholesterol)HDL – high density lipoproteins – removes excess cholesterol FROM the tissues (Good cholesterol)
38LDL Carries most of the cholesterol to the cells You don’t need this level to be high, we only need so much cholesterol in our cells plus the liver already makes cholesterol…we don’t need too much
39HDLLipoproteins that carry cholesterol from cells to the liver for eventual excretion out of the kidneysYou want this level to be elevated meaning you want this level to be nice and elevated to do a good job of removing the cholesterol out of your bodyExercise and wine increases HDL levels
40Metabolism of fats The liver controls fat metabolism The liver hydrolyzes (adds water) the triglycerides (the fat in the blood) and forms new ones from this hydrolysis process, when needed
41Metabolism of fatsThe metabolism of fats occurs in the cells, where fatty acids are broken down to carbon dioxide and water= energyCO2 and H2O are removed from the body by circulatory system, respiratory system and excretory system like urination
42Lecithin Is a fatty substance found in plant and animal foods It’s a natural emulsifier that helps transport fats in the bloodstreamIt is used commercially to make food products smooth
43High fat diet and health High fat diets are associated with cancers of:ColonBreastuterus