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Introduction to Ch 19 The Renaissance and the Reformation.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Ch 19 The Renaissance and the Reformation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Ch 19 The Renaissance and the Reformation

2 Reopening the Silk Road When the silk road reopened (due to the Mongls) trade increased When the silk road reopened (due to the Mongls) trade increased Marco Polo brought back information on China to the people of Europe, igniting a desire to have more Asian goods Marco Polo brought back information on China to the people of Europe, igniting a desire to have more Asian goods Trade cities in Italy ( Florence, Milan, and Venice) became very wealthy as a result of the increased trade. Trade cities in Italy ( Florence, Milan, and Venice) became very wealthy as a result of the increased trade.

3 The Desire to Know Christianity ruled Europe during the Middle Ages The Church ran schools and universities where the main subject taught was religion One of the challenges facing the church was the desire of people to want to know who, what, where and why and not always be told the answer would relate to religion Inspired by Humanism, Key historical figures stepped into importance

4 Niccolo Machiavelli Italian writer and politician Italian writer and politician Interested in what really happened, not theories Interested in what really happened, not theories Sets a good example of Renaissance interest in human behavior and society Sets a good example of Renaissance interest in human behavior and society In The Prince he offered advise to how ruler should stay in power In The Prince he offered advise to how ruler should stay in power Fear vs Loved Fear vs Loved

5 Michelangelo One of the greatest Italian One of the greatest ItalianMasters He designed buildings, wrote poetry, carved sculptures and painted magnificent paintings He designed buildings, wrote poetry, carved sculptures and painted magnificent paintings Renowned for painting the ceiling of the Sistine chapel Renowned for painting the ceiling of the Sistine chapel Self portrait

6 Leonardo da Vinci A true genius of the Renaissance Age A true genius of the Renaissance Age Painter, sculptor, inventor, engineer, town planner, map maker Painter, sculptor, inventor, engineer, town planner, map maker Use real specimens whenever possible to be as accurate as he could Use real specimens whenever possible to be as accurate as he could

7 Rebirth was being experienced throughout Europe Around the continent new ideas and advances were sprouting all over in the form of Around the continent new ideas and advances were sprouting all over in the form of Math Math Humanism Humanism Astronomy Astronomy Religious reform Religious reform

8 Mathematics Square roots, positive and negative integers all created during this time Square roots, positive and negative integers all created during this time Advances in math lead to Advances in math lead to Engineers and architects creating formulas to strengthen buildings Engineers and architects creating formulas to strengthen buildings Studying astronomy to learn more about the sun, stars and planets. This lead to the discovery that the Earth revolved around the sun. (controversial) Why? Studying astronomy to learn more about the sun, stars and planets. This lead to the discovery that the Earth revolved around the sun. (controversial) Why? These findings challenged traditional church beliefs. These findings challenged traditional church beliefs. Galileo Galilei invented the telescope and was able to prove this. Some of his body parts are on display in italy Galileo Galilei invented the telescope and was able to prove this. Some of his body parts are on display in italy Galileo Galileo Galileo

9 Changes in Education History became important in education once humanism became a more popular subject History became important in education once humanism became a more popular subject The Renaissance scholar Petrarch warned against ignoring history. The Renaissance scholar Petrarch warned against ignoring history. O inglorious age! that scorns antiquity, its mother, to whom it owes every noble art… What can be said in defense of men of education who ought not to be ignorant of antiquity [ancient times] and yet are plunged in…darkness and delusion? Francesco Petrarch, from a 1366 letter to Boccaccio Francesco Petrarch, from a 1366 letter to Boccaccio

10 Germany – Johann Gutenberg 1456 Gutenberg printed the Bible in Latin and it was later translated into other languages Gutenberg printed the Bible in Latin and it was later translated into other languages. Why was this so monumental? Why was this so monumental?

11 Universities Opened all over Europe Spreading Renaissance Ideas In Northern Europe, Christian humanism spread as a subject in the universities. In Northern Europe, Christian humanism spread as a subject in the universities. As more and more people gained access to the bible, they came to feel that the church was corrupt As more and more people gained access to the bible, they came to feel that the church was corrupt Desiderius Erasmus was a voice for reform Desiderius Erasmus was a voice for reform He criticized corrupt clergy and emphasized devotion to God and the teachings of Jesus. He criticized corrupt clergy and emphasized devotion to God and the teachings of Jesus.

12 Painting and Literature The paintings during the Renaissance became more realistic The paintings during the Renaissance became more realistic One Artist study the anatomy of the human body to make his work more realistic One Artist study the anatomy of the human body to make his work more realistic Albrecht Durer Albrecht Durer William Shakespeare is considered the greatest writer in the English language William Shakespeare is considered the greatest writer in the English language Romeo and Juliet Romeo and Juliet Romeo and Juliet Romeo and Juliet

13 Reformation Unpopular church practices, corrupt clergy, sale of indulgences and other issues motivated some to try and reform the Catholic church Unpopular church practices, corrupt clergy, sale of indulgences and other issues motivated some to try and reform the Catholic church On October 31, 1517 Martin Luther nailed the 95 thesis to the door of a church in Wittenberg, Germany. On October 31, 1517 Martin Luther nailed the 95 thesis to the door of a church in Wittenberg, Germany. Luther wanted to correct the churchs mistakes by calling them out. Luther wanted to correct the churchs mistakes by calling them out. Instead of changing, the church kicked him out and called him a heretic, Instead of changing, the church kicked him out and called him a heretic, His ideas would eventually lead to another split in the Catholic Church His ideas would eventually lead to another split in the Catholic Church Those who followed Luther became known as Protestants or Lutherans Those who followed Luther became known as Protestants or Lutherans Roman Catholic Orthodox Catholic Protestant

14 Other Reformers William Tynndale – an English professor who thought that everyone should be able to read and interpret the Bible William Tynndale – an English professor who thought that everyone should be able to read and interpret the Bible This went against the teachings of the Catholic Church which held that only clergy should have this right. This went against the teachings of the Catholic Church which held that only clergy should have this right. John Calvin – believed in the idea of predestination John Calvin – believed in the idea of predestination King Henry VIII – broke from the Catholic Church because they did not allow him to divorce his wife. The Anglican Church, as it came to be known, is VERY similar to the Catholic Church. King Henry VIII – broke from the Catholic Church because they did not allow him to divorce his wife. The Anglican Church, as it came to be known, is VERY similar to the Catholic Church.

15 The Catholic Reformation The Catholic Church decided they needed to stop the spread of the Protestant faith. The Catholic Church decided they needed to stop the spread of the Protestant faith. In Spain the Spanish Inquisition was responsible for making all of Spain Catholic In Spain the Spanish Inquisition was responsible for making all of Spain Catholic A religious order known as the Jesuits was created to serve the Pope and the Church A religious order known as the Jesuits was created to serve the Pope and the Church The Council of Trent was a meeting to discuss ways to improve the Catholic faith, but instead it became a way to limit peoples exposure to Protestant information, like books. The Council of Trent was a meeting to discuss ways to improve the Catholic faith, but instead it became a way to limit peoples exposure to Protestant information, like books. More Catholic missionaries were sent out to gain more followers of the Catholic faith around the world. More Catholic missionaries were sent out to gain more followers of the Catholic faith around the world.

16 The Political Impact In France religious wars began between the French Catholics and the French protestants also known as Huguenots In France religious wars began between the French Catholics and the French protestants also known as Huguenots The conflict lasted for decades until King Henry IV issued the Edict of Nantes, a law granting religious freedom in most of France The conflict lasted for decades until King Henry IV issued the Edict of Nantes, a law granting religious freedom in most of France In the Holy Roman Empire wars broke out after the emperor forced everyone in his kingdom to be Catholic, Protestants revolted causing what came to be known as the Thirty Years War In the Holy Roman Empire wars broke out after the emperor forced everyone in his kingdom to be Catholic, Protestants revolted causing what came to be known as the Thirty Years War A peace agreement that came in the 1648, The Treaty of Westphalia, allowed rulers to determine whether their country would be Protestant or Catholic. A peace agreement that came in the 1648, The Treaty of Westphalia, allowed rulers to determine whether their country would be Protestant or Catholic.

17 Social Changes With the reformation, Protestants had to run their own churchs. The Clergy only worked for the Catholic With the reformation, Protestants had to run their own churchs. The Clergy only worked for the Catholic Once people started to govern their own churches, many decided they also wanted some sort of say in the government as well Once people started to govern their own churches, many decided they also wanted some sort of say in the government as well Some congregations gained enough power that they began to share it with the local government Some congregations gained enough power that they began to share it with the local government That is how the idea of Federalism came to be. That is how the idea of Federalism came to be. This sparked the desire for people to want to know more based on their knowledge, not trust in someone in authority telling you. This sparked the desire for people to want to know more based on their knowledge, not trust in someone in authority telling you. Some Results of the Reformation Some Results of the Reformation Religious conflicts spread across Europe Religious conflicts spread across Europe Church leaders reform the Catholic Church Church leaders reform the Catholic Church Missionaries spread Catholicism around the world Missionaries spread Catholicism around the world Northern Europe becomes largely Protestant Northern Europe becomes largely Protestant Local Protestant churches practice self-government Local Protestant churches practice self-government

18 Martin Luther Martin Luther


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