2GeographyGreece is a peninsula about the size of Louisiana in the Mediterranean Sea.It’s very close to Egypt, the Persian empire (includes Turkey) and Rome.
3Greek geography Greece is mountainous Greek communities often times developed independently because of the mountains, thus they were diverseAs a result, they fought each other a lot.
4Terracing saves water and soil in mountainous environments
5Technology results from necessity Since Greek coastal cities were sandwiched between the ocean and the sea, they developed an awesome navy for trading and fighting.They also used the sea as a source of food and as a way of trading with other communities.
6Technology results from scarcity All cities need fresh water. This is a Greek aqueduct, basically a brick water pipe.The first aqueduct was Assyrian, but most ancient societies had them.
7Direct participation was the key to Athenian democracy Direct participation was the key to Athenian democracy. In the Assembly, every male citizen was not only entitled to attend as often as he pleased but also had the right to debate, offer amendments, and vote on proposals. Every man had a say in whether to declare war or stay in peace. Basically any thing that required a government decision, all male citizens were allowed to participate in.
8Political: Athens was the first democracy Democracy: type of government where people rule themselves.Athens was a direct democracy where all decisions made by people directly affect the outcome of the vote (every vote counts).The U.S. today is a representative democracy, where we vote for people to make decisions for us.
9Political TermsElected leader- Pericles encouraged people to take part in government and to introduce democracy to other parts of Greece.
10Democracy Then and Now In American Representative Democracy… Citizens elect representatives to debate and vote on issues for them.There is a separation of powers. Citizens elect some people to create laws, others to enforce laws, and others to be judges.Men and women who are citizens have the right to vote.In Athenian Direct Democracy…All citizens met as a group to debate and vote directly on every issue.There was no separation of powers. Citizens created laws, enforced laws, and acted as judges.Only free male citizens could vote. Women and slaves could not vote.
12Olympian GodsToday, people have scientific explanations for events like thunder, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions.The ancient Greeks believed their gods caused these events (as well as daily events) to happen and created myths to explain the gods’ actions.
13The Greeks were the original Olympiads. Their scientists studied the best way to perform sports.
14Ancient Greek Literature A poet by the name of Homer wrote two great epic poems: the Iliad and the Odyssey.Iliad: tells the story of the last years of the Trojan wars. It focuses on the deeds of the Greeks, especially Achilles. (*Troy- Brad Pitt)Odyssey: tells the story of a soldier, ten years after the Trojan war, who is trying to find his way home and the people/ adventures he encounters along the way.Fables:Aesop told stories to teach lessons about life or give advice on how to liveExample: “The Ants and the Grasshopper” (p. 247)
15Greek Influence on Language In Greek literature and mythology…Achilles was a great warrior who was killed when an arrow struck his heel.Hercules was the strongest man on earth who completed 12 almost impossible tasks.A fox wanted to eat some grapes but he couldn’t reach the branch they were on, so he said, “Those grapes are probably sour anyway.”King Midas was granted one wish by the god Dionysus, so he wished that everything he touched turned to gold.Tantalus was punished for offending the gods. He had to stand up to his chin in water and he was always thirsty, but if he tried to drink the water it went away.Today…An “Achilles heel” is a person’s weak spot.When a person has a really hard job to do it is called a “Herculean” task.When people pretend they don’t want something after they find out they cant have it, they are said to have “sour grapes”.A person who seems to get rich easily is said to have a “Midas touch.”Something is tantalizing if you want it but it’s just out of your reach.
16Additional information is available on the following slides!
24Remember! If you think the U.S. is so much better. . . Some southern states did not let African Americans vote until the 1960s (Voting Rights Act 1965)Women could not vote in the U.S. until 1920 (19th Amendment)Eighteen year olds could not vote until the late 1970s.
25SpartaSparta was an isolated city-state that was culturally and politically different from Athens.Sparta was an oligarchy, government ruled by a few. They had 2 kings.During the Peloponnesian Sparta sacked Athens.
26Sparta Spartan society was obsessed with war. Boys were sent to military school at a young age.Boys who are born deformed are left to die on mountainsides
27AthensAthenians were tough but were encouraged to engage in activities like art, philosophy, music.
28Alexander the Great Alexander was not from Athens, but Macedonia. Alexander was a brilliant military strategist.His favorite book was Homer’s Iliad
29Alexander conquered the Persian empire and controlled the largest empire the world has ever seen.
36Greece Quiz1.What is Greece’s political contribution to the political world (especially the United States)?2. How did geography influence Greece’s economy and military technology?3. How did Hellenistic ideas spread throughout Asia?4. Describe an example of how necessity brings about technological change.5. Define monarchy6. Define oligarchy
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