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Chapter 2 Dietary Guidelines

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1 Chapter 2 Dietary Guidelines
NUTRITION Chapter 2 Dietary Guidelines

2 Much of the info. On my slides will be found in Ch 2 of the nutrition book however…..
We used a different nutrition book for 7+ yrs and I know exactly what’s more or less on NCLEX. I will still teach what’s needed but it may be in a little diff. order in this book

3 What are the Dietary Guidelines?
Science-based advice for ages 2+ Promote health, prevent chronic disease Federal nutrition policy/programs HHS/USDA – Legislated for every 5 yrs. The Guidelines are science-based advice for Americans 2 years and older. The Sixth Edition of Dietary Guidelines for Americans was released on January 12, 2005 The Guidelines must be issued at least every 5 years by law. (Public Law , Title III, 7 U.S.Code 301 ) Government vehicle to speak with one voice It’s essentially Dietary guidance issued by the Federal government, which were reviewed by the Secretaries of Agriculture and Health and Human Services

4 BALANCED DIET Includes all 6 classes of nutrients
Includes calories that preserve & promote good health

5 23 general recommendations
Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2005 (same for 2010) developed every 5 yrs 9 focus areas 23 general recommendations 18 specific population recommendations (e.g. older Americans, children, African Americans) All of these taken together represent the Dietary Guidelines.

6 Nine Focus Areas Adequate Nutrients Within Calorie Needs
Weight Management Physical Activity Food Groups To Encourage Fats Carbohydrates Sodium and Potassium Alcoholic Beverages Food Safety

7 As of 2005… More recommendations 2000 calorie reference diet
Cups and ounces rather than servings Remains the same in 2011

8 Adequate Nutrients Within Calorie Needs
Consume a variety of nutrient-dense foods and beverages within and among the basic food groups while choosing foods that limit intake of saturated and trans fat, cholesterol, added sugars, salt, and alcohol Meet recommended intakes by adopting a balanced eating pattern, such as the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Guide or the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Eating Plan. Consume a variety of nutrient-dense foods and beverages within and among the basic food groups while choosing foods that limit the intake of saturated and trans fats, cholesterol, added sugars, salt, and alcohol. Meet recommended intakes within energy needs by adopting a balanced eating pattern, such as the USDA Food Guide or the DASH Eating Plan.

9 Nutrient dense foods Low nutrient dense= bad foods like sodas, chips, candy High nutrient dense= whole grains, low fat milk, yogurt, tuna. Stuff that’s good for you

10 Physical Activity Engage in regular physical activity and reduce sedentary activities to promote health, psychological well-being, and a health body weight Achieve physical fitness by including cardiovascular conditioning, stretching, and resistance exercises. Children and adolescents – At least 60 minutes on most, preferably all, days of the week.

11 As of 2010 Specificity of recommendations
At least 30 minutes to reduce risk of chronic disease **Up to 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity may be needed to prevent gradual weight gain that occurs over time 60 to 90 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity to sustain weight loss

12 Weight Management To maintain body weight in a healthy range, balance calories from foods and beverages with calories expended. To prevent gradual weight gain over time, make small decreases in food and beverage calories and increase physical activity To maintain body weight in a healthy range, balance calories from foods and beverages with calories expended. To prevent gradual weight gain over time, make small decreases in food and beverage calories and increase physical activity.

13 Tips on wt. management Aim for slow, steady wt. loss, 1-2 lbs/week
Decrease caloric intake while eating all nutrients Physical activity to increase metabolism Consult healthcare specialist

14 Food Groups To Encourage
Consume sufficient amts. of fruits & vegetables while staying within energy needs Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables Consume 3 oz. equivalents of whole grains daily—at least half whole grains (rest enriched) Consume 3 cups per day of fat-free or low-fat milk or equivalent milk products Consume a sufficient amount of fruits and vegetables while staying within energy needs. Two cups of fruit and 21/2 cups of vegetables per day are recommended for a reference 2,000-calorie intake, with higher or lower amounts depending on the calorie level. Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables each day. In particular, select from all five vegetable subgroups (dark green, orange, legumes, starchy vegetables, and other vegetables) several times a week. Consume 3 or more ounce-equivalents of whole-grain products per day, with the rest of the recommended grains coming from enriched or whole-grain products. In general, at least half the grains should come from whole grains. Consume 3 cups per day of fat-free or low-fat milk or equivalent milk products.

15 Carbohydrates Choose fiber-rich fruits, vegetables, and whole grains
Choose and prepare foods and beverages with little added sugars or caloric sweeteners Consume sugar- and starch-containing foods and beverages less frequently to reduce caries

16 Sodium and Potassium Consume < 2,300 mg (~1 tsp. salt) of sodium per day Choose and prepare foods with little salt. At the same time, consume potassium-rich foods, such as fruits and vegetables. Consume less than 2,300 mg (~1 tsp. salt) of sodium per day.

17 Specific recommendations for individuals with hypertension, African Americans, and middle-aged and older adults Aim to consume no more than 1,500 mg of sodium per day, and meet the potassium recommendation (4,700 mg) with food.

18 Alcoholic Beverages Those who choose to drink alcoholic beverages: Use moderation— Females-1 Drink / day Males-2 Drinks / day Alcoholic beverages should not be consumed by some individuals Alcoholic beverages should be avoided by individuals engaging in activities that require attention, skill, or coordination

19 Food Safety To avoid microbial foodborne illness:
Clean hands, food contact surfaces, and fruits and vegetables. Meat and poultry should not be washed or rinsed. Separate foods Cook foods to safe temperature Chill perishable foods promptly. Avoid unpasteurized milk, raw eggs, raw or undercooked meat and poultry, unpasteurized juices, and raw sprouts.

20 WHAT IS MY PYRAMID? It allows people to make better food choices in an effort to a “healthier you”

21 Color bands represent the foods that should be consumed
The width of the color bands denotes the relative quantity of each food to be consumed The steps along the left side incorporate physical activity into the design

22 The web site shows 12 different ranges of food intake up to 3200 cal/day to meet individ. Needs of all people

Bread, cereal, rice pasta Rich in energy, you should eat 6 ounces every day Carbs should make up 50% of caloric intake

24 VEGETABLES Next thickest band on pyramid
Dark leafy vegs, orange vegs like carrots and sweet potatoes Dry beans and peas kidney beans and lentils Eat 2 ½ cups every day

25 FRUITS Smaller band on pyramid than vegs d/t sugar/carb
Eat a variety of fruits Go easy on the juices, lots of sugar 2 cups every day

26 MILK Yummy, go low-fat or skim
If lactose intolerant, choose lactose-free products that contain calcium Consume (3) – 8oz cups every day

27 Meat and Beans Choose low fat or lean meats and poultry
Bake it, broil it or grill it Eat 5 ½ ounces every day

28 FATS limit fats and salt and sugar

29 What is “MY PLATE” Since 2005, we used “MY PYRAMID”
Out with the old, in with the new fancy, easier to understand plate  Mrs. Obama said “As long as they’re half full of fruits and vegetables, and paired with lean proteins, whole grains and low-fat dairy, we’re golden. That’s how easy it is.”


31 FOOD LABELS Why do we have food labels on food?
FDA says we must to inform consumers of the nutrient contents and how those foods effect our health Like listing fat and trans fat on labels IT’S ALL ABOUT PREVENTION NOW

32 Food Label

33 SUPER SIZE ME Not any more
FDA determines what a serving size is for foods NOT THE individual food makers

34 Consumer brochure

35 Consumer Research Create messages that will inspire individuals to seek more info Communicate scientifically accurate concepts

36 Finding Your Way to a Healthier You: Based on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans
Feel better today. Stay healthy for tomorrow. Make smart choices from every food group Find your balance between food and physical activity Get the most nutrition out of your calories

37 Consumer Research Application
Motivation is essential. Trust is important. The more and individual knows, the more choices they have. Keep it simple, but true to the science.


39 CONVERSIONS Household measurements into metric measures 1tsp = 5ml/cc
3tsp = 1T.or 1tbsp 1T or tbsp = 15ml/cc 1cup = 240ml/cc 1 fluid ounce = 30ml/cc

40 FOOD CUSTOMS Food habits of others
Primarily, it’s what is available to people where they are originating at Food customs are affected by geographical location and economical status If you don’t grow it or don’t have the $ to buy it, you won’t eat it…this is food customs

Need to consider and respect customs and cultures of others Consult a dietician for help with unfamiliar diets

42 WHAT TO TEACH When food customs result in inadequate diet, corrections should be made SLOWLY or non-compliance is sure to happen Corrections are easier to make and are more effective when the reasons for the food habits are understood

43 Food patterns based on Religion
Jewish laws vary Diet is prepared as Kosher Meat may not be prepared with milk Slaughtering of an animal must be done by qualified person

44 ROMAN CATHOLICS Meat is not allowed to be eaten on Fridays during lent

45 ISLAMIC Diet Laws prohibit the use of alcohol and pork

46 SEVENTH DAY ADVENTIST Referred to as lacto-ovo vegetarians
They use dairy products and eggs but no meat poultry or fish

47 VEGETARIANS Lacto-vegetarians- eat dairy but no meat, poultry or eggs
Usually, vegetarians won’t eat anything animal related, even milk called VEGANS The lacto-vegs DO EAT dairy


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