2Much of the info. On my slides will be found in Ch 2 of the nutrition book however….. We used a different nutrition book for 7+ yrs and I know exactly what’s more or less on NCLEX.I will still teach what’s needed but it may be in a little diff. order in this book
3What are the Dietary Guidelines? Science-based advice for ages 2+Promote health, prevent chronic diseaseFederal nutrition policy/programsHHS/USDA – Legislated for every 5 yrs.The Guidelines are science-based advice for Americans 2 years and older.The Sixth Edition of Dietary Guidelines for Americans was released on January 12, 2005The Guidelines must be issued at least every 5 years by law. (Public Law , Title III, 7 U.S.Code 301 )Government vehicle to speak with one voiceIt’s essentially Dietary guidance issued by the Federal government, which were reviewed by the Secretaries of Agriculture and Health and Human Services
4BALANCED DIET Includes all 6 classes of nutrients Includes calories that preserve & promote good health
523 general recommendations Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2005 (same for 2010) developed every 5 yrs9 focus areas23 general recommendations18 specific population recommendations (e.g. older Americans, children, African Americans)All of these taken together represent the Dietary Guidelines.
6Nine Focus Areas Adequate Nutrients Within Calorie Needs Weight ManagementPhysical ActivityFood Groups To EncourageFatsCarbohydratesSodium and PotassiumAlcoholic BeveragesFood Safety
7As of 2005… More recommendations 2000 calorie reference diet Cups and ounces rather than servingsRemains the same in 2011
8Adequate Nutrients Within Calorie Needs Consume a variety of nutrient-dense foods and beverages within and among the basic food groups while choosing foods that limit intake of saturated and trans fat, cholesterol, added sugars, salt, and alcoholMeet recommended intakes by adopting a balanced eating pattern, such as the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Guide or the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Eating Plan. Consume a variety of nutrient-dense foods and beverages within and among the basic food groups while choosing foods that limit the intake of saturated and trans fats, cholesterol, added sugars, salt, and alcohol.Meet recommended intakes within energy needs by adopting a balanced eating pattern, such as the USDA Food Guide or the DASH Eating Plan.
9Nutrient dense foodsLow nutrient dense= bad foods like sodas, chips, candyHigh nutrient dense= whole grains, low fat milk, yogurt, tuna. Stuff that’s good for you
10Physical ActivityEngage in regular physical activity and reduce sedentary activities to promote health, psychological well-being, and a health body weightAchieve physical fitness by including cardiovascular conditioning, stretching, and resistance exercises.Children and adolescents – At least 60 minutes on most, preferably all, days of the week.
11As of 2010 Specificity of recommendations At least 30 minutes to reduce risk of chronic disease**Up to 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity may be needed to prevent gradual weight gain that occurs over time60 to 90 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity to sustain weight loss
12Weight ManagementTo maintain body weight in a healthy range, balance calories from foods and beverages with calories expended.To prevent gradual weight gain over time, make small decreases in food and beverage calories and increase physical activityTo maintain body weight in a healthy range, balance calories from foods and beverages with calories expended.To prevent gradual weight gain over time, make small decreases in food and beverage calories and increase physical activity.
13Tips on wt. management Aim for slow, steady wt. loss, 1-2 lbs/week Decrease caloric intake while eating all nutrientsPhysical activity to increase metabolismConsult healthcare specialist
14Food Groups To Encourage Consume sufficient amts. of fruits & vegetables while staying within energy needsChoose a variety of fruits and vegetablesConsume 3 oz. equivalents of whole grains daily—at least half whole grains (rest enriched)Consume 3 cups per day of fat-free or low-fat milk or equivalent milk productsConsume a sufficient amount of fruits and vegetables while staying within energy needs. Two cups of fruit and 21/2 cups of vegetables per day are recommended for a reference 2,000-calorie intake, with higher or lower amounts depending on the calorie level.Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables each day. In particular, select from all five vegetable subgroups (dark green, orange, legumes, starchy vegetables, and other vegetables) several times a week.Consume 3 or more ounce-equivalents of whole-grain products per day, with the rest of the recommended grains coming from enriched or whole-grain products. In general, at least half the grains should come from whole grains.Consume 3 cups per day of fat-free or low-fat milk or equivalent milk products.
15Carbohydrates Choose fiber-rich fruits, vegetables, and whole grains Choose and prepare foods and beverages with little added sugars or caloric sweetenersConsume sugar- and starch-containing foods and beverages less frequently to reduce caries
16Sodium and PotassiumConsume < 2,300 mg (~1 tsp. salt) of sodium per dayChoose and prepare foods with little salt. At the same time, consume potassium-rich foods, such as fruits and vegetables.Consume less than 2,300 mg (~1 tsp. salt) of sodium per day.
17Specific recommendations for individuals with hypertension, African Americans, and middle-aged and older adultsAim to consume no more than 1,500 mg of sodium per day, and meet the potassium recommendation (4,700 mg) with food.
18Alcoholic BeveragesThose who choose to drink alcoholic beverages: Use moderation—Females-1 Drink / dayMales-2 Drinks / dayAlcoholic beverages should not be consumed by some individualsAlcoholic beverages should be avoided by individuals engaging in activities that require attention, skill, or coordination
19Food Safety To avoid microbial foodborne illness: Clean hands, food contact surfaces, and fruits and vegetables. Meat and poultry should not be washed or rinsed.Separate foodsCook foods to safe temperatureChill perishable foods promptly.Avoid unpasteurized milk, raw eggs, raw or undercooked meat and poultry, unpasteurized juices, and raw sprouts.
20WHAT IS MY PYRAMID?It allows people to make better food choices in an effort to a “healthier you”
21Color bands represent the foods that should be consumed The width of the color bands denotes the relative quantity of each food to be consumedThe steps along the left side incorporate physical activity into the design
22The web site shows 12 different ranges of food intake up to 3200 cal/day to meet individ. Needs of all people
23BASE OF PYRAMID Thickest band on pyramid CARBOHYDRATES/GRAINS Bread, cereal, rice pastaRich in energy, you should eat 6 ounces every dayCarbs should make up 50% of caloric intake
24VEGETABLES Next thickest band on pyramid Dark leafy vegs, orange vegs like carrots and sweet potatoesDry beans and peas kidney beans and lentilsEat 2 ½ cups every day
25FRUITS Smaller band on pyramid than vegs d/t sugar/carb Eat a variety of fruitsGo easy on the juices, lots of sugar2 cups every day
26MILK Yummy, go low-fat or skim If lactose intolerant, choose lactose-free products that contain calciumConsume (3) – 8oz cups every day
27Meat and Beans Choose low fat or lean meats and poultry Bake it, broil it or grill itEat 5 ½ ounces every day
29What is “MY PLATE” Since 2005, we used “MY PYRAMID” Out with the old, in with the new fancy, easier to understand plate Mrs. Obama said “As long as they’re half full of fruits and vegetables, and paired with lean proteins, whole grains and low-fat dairy, we’re golden. That’s how easy it is.”
31FOOD LABELS Why do we have food labels on food? FDA says we must to inform consumers of the nutrient contents and how those foods effect our healthLike listing fat and trans fat on labelsIT’S ALL ABOUT PREVENTION NOW
35Consumer ResearchCreate messages that will inspire individuals to seek more infoCommunicate scientifically accurate concepts
36Finding Your Way to a Healthier You: Based on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans Feel better today. Stay healthy for tomorrow.Make smart choices from every food groupFind your balance between food and physical activityGet the most nutrition out of your calories
37Consumer Research Application Motivation is essential.Trust is important.The more and individual knows, the more choices they have.Keep it simple, but true to the science.
40FOOD CUSTOMS Food habits of others Primarily, it’s what is available to people where they are originating atFood customs are affected by geographical location and economical statusIf you don’t grow it or don’t have the $ to buy it, you won’t eat it…this is food customs
41HEALTH CARE PROFESSIONALS Need to consider and respect customs and cultures of othersConsult a dietician for help with unfamiliar diets
42WHAT TO TEACHWhen food customs result in inadequate diet, corrections should be made SLOWLY or non-compliance is sure to happenCorrections are easier to make and are more effective when the reasons for the food habits are understood
43Food patterns based on Religion Jewish laws varyDiet is prepared as KosherMeat may not be prepared with milkSlaughtering of an animal must be done by qualified person
44ROMAN CATHOLICSMeat is not allowed to be eaten on Fridays during lent
45ISLAMIC DietLaws prohibit the use of alcohol and pork
46SEVENTH DAY ADVENTIST Referred to as lacto-ovo vegetarians They use dairy products and eggs but no meat poultry or fish
47VEGETARIANS Lacto-vegetarians- eat dairy but no meat, poultry or eggs Usually, vegetarians won’t eat anything animal related, even milk called VEGANSThe lacto-vegs DO EAT dairy