2 The capabilities of the human brain … Hope you find it interesting
3 The phenomenal power of the human mind I cdnuolt blveiee taht I cluod aulaclty uesdnatnrd waht I was rdanieg The phaonmneal pweor of the hmuan mnid! Aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn't mttaer inwaht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoatnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be in the rghit pclae. The rset can be a taotl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit a porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe. Amzanig huh? Yaeh, and I awlyas thought slpeling was ipmorantt. NOTE: I read this somewhere and I just had to pass it around. I do not know the origins of the text
4 Take a look at the picture? What do you see? Research has shown that young children cannot identify the intimate couple because they do not have prior memory associated with such a scenario.Children see nine dolphins.This is a test to determine if you already have a corrupted mind. If it is hard for you to find the dolphins within six seconds, your mind is indeed corrupted.
5 Can you see a man's face and also a word? Hint: Try tilting your head to the right, the word begins with 'L'
20 Focus on the dot in the centre and move your head backwards and forwards...Weird...
21 Do you see gray areas in between the squares Do you see gray areas in between the squares? Now where did they come from?
22 This is quite amazing!If you see this lady turning clockwise, you are supposed to be using your right brain.If you see it turning the other way, (the lady turning counter-clockwise) you are supposed to be using your left brain.Some people can make the lady turn both ways, but most people see it turning only one way (It is said that only about 15% of the US population can see her (make her) move both ways)BOTH DIRECTIONS CAN BE DONE! See if you can make her go one way and then the other by shifting the brain's current!
23 This is without a doubt one of the coolest PC illusions I have seen so far… Follow the instruction below. 1) Relax and stare at the 4 little dots on the middle of the picture for 30 seconds 2) then look at a blank wall near you (any smooth, single coloured surface) 3) a bright spot will appear 4) Blink your eyes a few times and you will see a figure emerging 5) What do you see? Moreover WHO do you see?
24 This is another example of an amazing illusion! If your brain works normally this is neat. If your eyes follow the movement of the rotating pink dot, the dots will remain only one color, pink.If you concentrate on the cross in the middle, after a while you will notice that this moving pink dot will turn green! Keep looking at the cross a bit longer and you‘ll notice that all dots except the green one will disappear It's amazing how our brain works – There really is no green dot, and the pink ones really don't disappear.This should be proof enough; we don't always see what we think we see!
25 Have a blessed and wonderful day – Always! That’s all Folks…Have a blessed and wonderful day – Always!
26 Anatomy and Physiology Review Nervous system divided into:Central nervous systemBrain and spinal cordPeripheral nervous systemCranial nerves and spinal nervesAutonomic nervous systemSympathetic and parasympathetic systems
27 Assessment Health history Headaches Clumsiness Loss or change in function of extremitySeizure activityNumbness or tingling(continued)
28 Assessment Health history Change in vision Pain Extreme fatigue Personality changesMood swings(continued)
29 Assessment Cerebral function Level of consciousness Orientation Mental statusIntellectual functionEmotional statusPupil reactionCommunication(continued)
30 Assessment Cranial nerve function Motor function Muscle size and symmetryMuscle toneMuscle strengthCoordinationBalancePosturing(continued)
31 Assessment Sensory function Tactile sensation Pain and temperature VibrationProprioceptionStereognosisGraphesthesiaIntegration of sensation(continued)
33 Common Diagnostic Tests Lumbar puncture (LP)EEGEMGImaging proceduresCerebral angiographyBrain scanMyelogram
34 Epilepsy/Seizure Disorder Disorder of cerebral functionSudden attacks of altered consciousness, motor activity, or sensory phenomenonPrimary method of controlling seizure activity:Pharmacological(continued)
35 Epilepsy/Seizure Disorder Goals:Obtain seizure control with minimal side effects and maintain safety
36 Types of Seizures Generalized Tonic and/or clonic Absence Myoclonic Grand malAbsencePetit malMyoclonic(continued)
38 HeadachePain in head caused by stimulation of pain-sensitive structures in cranium, head, or neckPrimaryTension, migraine, and clusterSecondaryResult of pathological conditionTreat cause
39 Encephalitis and Meningitis Inflammation of brainMeningitisInflammation of meningesCaused by virus, bacteria, fungi, or parasitesCan cause cerebral edema, hemorrhage, and necrosis of brain tissue(continued)
40 Encephalitis and Meningitis Symptoms vary depending on causative agent, area of involvement, and degree of damage to nerve tissue:Fever, headache, nuchal rigidity, photophobia, irritability, lethargy, and nausea/vomitingTreatment based on presenting symptomsThe Fight of Her Life
41 Head Injury Trauma to scalp, skull, or brain Complications: Hemorrhage, cerebral edema, and increased intracranial pressureManagement focuses on early recognition, treatment of increasing intracranial pressure, and maintenance of normal body functions
43 Brain Tumor Space-occupying intracranial lesions Either benign or malignantSymptoms differ according to area of lesion and rate of growthManagement based on tumor type, growth rate, and assessment of client(continued)
44 Brain Tumor Treatment: Radiation, surgery, chemotherapy, and medications
45 Guillain-Barré Syndrome Acute inflammatory process involving motor and sensory neurons of peripheral nervous systemDemyelination begins in distal nerves and ascends symmetricallyRemyelination occurs from proximal to distal(continued)
46 Guillain-Barré Syndrome Symptoms:Motor weakness and absence of reflexes, respiratory failure, difficulty swallowing, autonomic dysfunctions, and painGoal:Prevent and treat complicationsE.g., immobility, infection, respiratory failure
47 Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (Lou Gehrig’s Disease) Progressive, fatal diseaseCharacterized by degeneration of motor neurons in cortex, medulla, and spinal cordNo cure(continued)
48 Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (Lou Gehrig’s Disease) Treat symptoms and promote independence for as long as possibleTreatment:Medications, diet, and therapy
49 Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Chronic, progressive, degenerative disease of central nervous systemCharacterized by loss of myelinDecreases nerve conductionSymptoms vary according to areas of demyelinationSensory or motor(continued)
50 MSGoals:Limit exacerbations, prevent complications, and maintain functional levelTreatment:Medications (e.g., interferon, immunosuppressive drugs, etc.), well-balanced diet, physical or occupational therapy, and stress management
51 Parkinson’s Disease Chronic, progressive, degenerative disease Affects area of brain controlling movementSymptoms:Muscular rigidity, bradykinesia, resting tremors, muscular weakness, and loss of postural reflexesTreatment:Drugs and physical or occupational therapy
52 Trigeminal Neuralgia (Tic Douloureux) Condition of cranial nerve VCharacterized by abrupt paroxysms of pain and facial muscle contractionsTreatment:Drug therapy, nerve blocks, and surgery
53 Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) Frequently precedes strokeTemporary impairment of blood flow to brainMay last from few seconds to 24 hours(continued)
54 TIASymptoms:Blurring of vision or blindness, loss of balance or coordination, difficulty speaking or understanding, and weakness, numbness, or paralysis
55 Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA) Also known as brain attack or strokeCauses:Ischemia from thrombus, embolus, severe vasospasm, and cerebral hemorrhageSymptoms:Neurological deficits of sensation, movement, thought, memory, and speech(continued)
57 Medical-Surgical Management Airway maintenance and supportive therapy during first 24 to 48 hoursDepending on location of CVA and extent of neurologic deficit, collaboration with physical, occupational, and speech therapists for client to reach optimal functional level of recovery
58 Herniated Intervertebral Disk Nucleus pulposus protrudes from vertebrae and may compress nerves of spinal cordMajor cause of chronic back painSymptoms:Pain, motor changes, sensory changes, and alterations in reflexes(continued)
59 Herniated Intervertebral Disk Treatment:Rest, stress reduction, immobility of spine, physical therapy, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), pain management, and surgery
60 Spinal Cord InjuryFrom trauma to spinal cord or compression of spinal cord due to injury to supporting structuresMay be classified by:Level of injuryMechanism of injuryNeurological or functional level(continued)
61 Spinal Cord InjuryExtent of permanent injury cannot be determined immediately due to necrosis, edema, and spinal shockMedical management begins before client reaches hospitalImmobilization of head, neck, and vertebral column(continued)
62 Spinal Cord Injury Respiratory function continuously assessed Surgical interventions performed for decompression, realignment, and stabilization of vertebral columnInterdisciplinary team works together to optimize client functional capabilities
64 Alzheimer’s Disease Progressive, degenerative neurological disease Brain cells destroyedClients with advanced disease cannot be left alone(continued)
65 Alzheimer’s Disease Respite care important for health of caregiver Treatment geared toward controlling undesirable symptoms and behaviors
66 Huntington’s DiseaseChronic, progressive hereditary disease of nervous systemSymptoms:Chorea (abnormal, involuntary, purposeless movements), difficulty chewing or swallowing, speech impairment, and bowel or bladder incontinence(continued)
67 Huntington’s DiseaseMental or intellectual impairment progresses to dementiaDeath usually results from heart failure, pneumonia, infection, or chokingMust collaborate with social worker, chaplain, physician, and mental health worker
68 Gilles De La Tourette’s Syndrome Neurological movement disorderProminent behavioral manifestationsSymptoms:Motor tics, involuntary repetitive movements of mouth, face, head, or neck, involuntary swearing, echolalia, and involuntary repetition of person’s own speech(continued)
69 Gilles De La Tourette’s Syndrome Treatment:Medications, psychotherapy, family counseling, and emotional support
70 Infants with Special Needs: Birth to 12 Months Chapter 60Infants with Special Needs: Birth to 12 Months70
71 Spina Bifida Neural tube defect Surgery required to close defect Incomplete closure of vertebrae and neural tube results in opening through which meninges and spinal cord may protrudeSurgery required to close defect
72 HydrocephalusResults when balance between rate of cerebrospinal fluid formation and absorption disturbedSymptoms:Abnormally large head at birth, bulging anterior fontanels, and eyes that appear to be pushed downwardRequires surgical insertion of shunt
73 Febrile Convulsions Involuntary muscle contraction and relaxation Usually occur early in course of high fever and carry little risk of neurological damageTreatment:Antipyretics and teaching
74 Meningitis Three main types: Symptoms sudden or gradual: Bacterial TubercularViralSymptoms sudden or gradual:High-pitched cry, fever, seizures, irritability, vomiting, bulging fontanel, and poor feeding(continued)
75 MeningitisTreatment:Spinal tap, isolation, and medications
76 Cerebral PalsyResults from damage to motor centers of brain before, during, or after birthNonprogressiveSymptoms vary in severity:Motor disorders, seizures, impaired vision, and difficulty swallowing and speaking(continued)
77 Cerebral PalsyMultidisciplinary team treatment to assist child in developing maximum potential