2 Project Goals Attaining and applying information from the Internet Learning about and finding: -Geographic Coordinates-UTM Coordinates-State Plane Coordinates
3 Downloading Template to Microsoft FrontPage Go to Angel (http://cms.psu.edu) Geog 121Click on projects, Project 1Right click on template and select view source
4 Downloading Template to Microsoft FrontPage cont. Go to file, save as and assign appropriate name with extension .html
5 Downloading Template to Microsoft FrontPage cont. Right click in pictureSave Picture As project1map.jpg (make sure extension is same in Save As Type box)
6 Map ProjectionsMap projections take places on Earth’s curved surface and superimpose them onto a flat map.The “Grid of Earth” doesn’t produce perfect squares as you move pole-ward because the longitude lines converge at one point on the poles, making each “box” smaller towards the polesTrue sizes of landmasses are distorted on flat surfaces, especially in polar regions. That’s why many different types of map projections have been made to minimize distortion in a particular area
7 Five Properties of Map Projections Conformality: angles plotted in the coordinate system are equal to angles measured on the surface of the EarthDirection: angles are portrayed correctly in all directionsDistance: distances from the center of the map to all other areas are the sameScale: a ratio between a small distance on a map corresponding to the actual distance on Earth, a map preserves scale when, for example, an inch corresponds to a mile on all areas of the mapArea: preserved when all landmasses/areas on a map are in the right proportions minimizing distortion of size
8 Mercator ProjectionThis projection preserves direction (equal angles) and conformalityIt distorts area (circles toward poles are larger) the closer you get to the polesVery helpful for navigators and surveyors, which is why the UTM system is based on a variation of this projection
9 Lambert Conformal Conic Projection The circular distortion ellipses are uniform, so it’s conformalThe U.S. State Plane Coordinate System is based on this map, especially in the “wide” zonesArea isn’t preserved
10 Albers Conic Equal Area Projection This projection preserves area, and relative sizes of landmassesIt’s not conformalGood for human geographers who map population density
11 Polar Stereographic Projection The pole is the central location from which all remaining areas are defined by distance and anglesThe UTM system uses this map for the polar regionsThe map is conformal
12 Polyconic ProjectionThe red ellipses vary in size and shape, so area is not preserved.Scale is preserved because the width of the ellipses are the same.
13 Geographic Coordinates Geographic coordinates determine a specific location of the face of the earth using degrees of Latitude and LongitudeLines of Latitudes- also known as Parallels- are parallel to the equator, beginning at 0 and continuing 90 degrees north and southLines of Longitude- also known as Meridians- run perpendicular to the equator, beginning at 0 at the Prime Meridian in Greenwich, EnglandAccuracy comes from dividing the degrees into minutes and seconds to get a more exact location
14 Getting your geographic coordinates Go toEnter your ZIP code and check the “latitude and longitude box” and click “Go”
15 Creating Your MapGo to: (bottom link in “sources” part of project 1 template)Under “What is OMC?”, click the link: “the Form”
16 Setting Map Parameters Set “Basic Boundaries”, choose a “Map Projection”, define your “Options”, bullet “download disabled” under “Download:”*Note: blue text has been added and is NOT part of the webpage
17 Setting Map Parameters cont. Scroll down and select “plot user defined locations”Enter home town coordinates in text box EXACTLY AS SHOWNCheck “Annotate locations”“Create Map” when finished
18 Your New MapIf your map didn’t generate, run through this troubleshooting list:Don’t include characters such as “W” or “N” in your place addressMake sure longitude precedes latitude in the text box (reverse order from zip code address)There MUST be commas between lat., long., and you hometown nameIf your place isn’t on the map, make sure you placed a “-” in front of longitude address if you live in W. Hem.A link on the homepage of this website: “some information” will give you detailed instructions on how to input parametersIf you’re successful, your map should look something like this:
19 Right Click in picture, “Save picture as” Give an appropriate name and make sure extension = extension in “save as type” box
20 Inserting Map in Microsoft FrontPage Open your saved project 1 template in Microsoft FrontpagePlace cursor where you want pictureGo to: “Insert>Picture>From File”Find your saved map and click “Ok”
21 UTM Coordinates Acronym for Universal Transverse Mercator system Overall, its main purpose is to portray a flat grid on a flat Mercator projection.The normal Mercator Projection is produced by theoretically wrapping a cylinder around a circle, and projecting the continents onto that surface, as if there was a light in the center of the globe.The projection only has one axis extending between the poles
22 UTM Coordinates cont.Universal Transverse Mercator projection stems from the Normal Mercator projectionUses the same idea of a hypothetical cylindrical 2D surface surrounding the globe30 axes instead of 1 and the cylinder is on its side; essentially the Mercator projection has been rotated 90°
23 UTM Coordinates cont.The 30 different axis create 60 longitudal sections of the earth, all separated by 6 degrees. UTM Coordinates are the most accurate way we know of to locate a point on earth, but still lack the ability to locate a point above or below 80 degrees south latitude to 84 degrees north latitude.
24 Getting Your UTM Coordinates In the Project 1 template, scroll down to “Sources” and click the link:Scroll down to the link under “Interactive Conversions”: Latitude/Longitude -> UTMInsert lat./long. address as shown below and to the right
25 State Plane Coordinate System Based on Transverse Mercator, Lambert Conic Conformal, and the Oblique Mercator ProjectionsDivides all 50 states into 122 different plane coordinate systemsError is reduced to 1 square meter per 10,000 square metersError reduction due to smaller geographic area covered than UTM (larger scale)
26 State Plane Coordinates cont. Consists of a horizontal and vertical reference grid which works better on 2D surfaces than 3D surfacesDespite possible error, this system is widely used because it’s quicker than calculating geographic data using spherical coordinates
27 Getting Your SPC (State Plane Coordinates) In the Project 1 template, scroll down to “Sources” and click the link:Scroll down to the link under “Interactive Conversions”: Latitude/Longitude -> SPCInsert lat./long. Address as shown below
28 How to Find Your “Zone”Return to the website homepage and under “Interactive Conversions” click the link: Find ZoneBullet “By County” on the following page
29 How to Find Your “Zone” cont. Scroll down and find your state and click “Submit”Scroll down and find you county and click “Submit”Your zone is outlined in yellow below (won’t be outlined on site)
30 Contrasts and Conclusion Geographic coordinates are the easiest for day-to-day use. They specify positions based on lines of latitude and longitude that originate from coordinates 0,0.UTM coordinates divide the world into zones 6 degrees longitude wide on a flat grid to easily see and determine location.SPC coordiates are used much the same as UTM but are specifically for the United States, creating 122 zones.
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