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**Kathleen Kelliher Don Mosteller Shashona Baker Emily Dziubek**

Geography 121: Mapping Our Changing World: Project 1 – Coordinates and Projections Kathleen Kelliher Don Mosteller Shashona Baker Emily Dziubek

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**Project Goals Attaining and applying information from the Internet**

Learning about and finding: -Geographic Coordinates -UTM Coordinates -State Plane Coordinates

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**Downloading Template to Microsoft FrontPage**

Go to Angel (http://cms.psu.edu) Geog 121 Click on projects, Project 1 Right click on template and select view source

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**Downloading Template to Microsoft FrontPage cont.**

Go to file, save as and assign appropriate name with extension .html

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**Downloading Template to Microsoft FrontPage cont.**

Right click in picture Save Picture As project1map.jpg (make sure extension is same in Save As Type box)

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Map Projections Map projections take places on Earth’s curved surface and superimpose them onto a flat map. The “Grid of Earth” doesn’t produce perfect squares as you move pole-ward because the longitude lines converge at one point on the poles, making each “box” smaller towards the poles True sizes of landmasses are distorted on flat surfaces, especially in polar regions. That’s why many different types of map projections have been made to minimize distortion in a particular area

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**Five Properties of Map Projections**

Conformality: angles plotted in the coordinate system are equal to angles measured on the surface of the Earth Direction: angles are portrayed correctly in all directions Distance: distances from the center of the map to all other areas are the same Scale: a ratio between a small distance on a map corresponding to the actual distance on Earth, a map preserves scale when, for example, an inch corresponds to a mile on all areas of the map Area: preserved when all landmasses/areas on a map are in the right proportions minimizing distortion of size

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Mercator Projection This projection preserves direction (equal angles) and conformality It distorts area (circles toward poles are larger) the closer you get to the poles Very helpful for navigators and surveyors, which is why the UTM system is based on a variation of this projection

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**Lambert Conformal Conic Projection**

The circular distortion ellipses are uniform, so it’s conformal The U.S. State Plane Coordinate System is based on this map, especially in the “wide” zones Area isn’t preserved

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**Albers Conic Equal Area Projection**

This projection preserves area, and relative sizes of landmasses It’s not conformal Good for human geographers who map population density

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**Polar Stereographic Projection**

The pole is the central location from which all remaining areas are defined by distance and angles The UTM system uses this map for the polar regions The map is conformal

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Polyconic Projection The red ellipses vary in size and shape, so area is not preserved. Scale is preserved because the width of the ellipses are the same.

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**Geographic Coordinates**

Geographic coordinates determine a specific location of the face of the earth using degrees of Latitude and Longitude Lines of Latitudes- also known as Parallels- are parallel to the equator, beginning at 0 and continuing 90 degrees north and south Lines of Longitude- also known as Meridians- run perpendicular to the equator, beginning at 0 at the Prime Meridian in Greenwich, England Accuracy comes from dividing the degrees into minutes and seconds to get a more exact location

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**Getting your geographic coordinates**

Go to Enter your ZIP code and check the “latitude and longitude box” and click “Go”

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Creating Your Map Go to: (bottom link in “sources” part of project 1 template) Under “What is OMC?”, click the link: “the Form”

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**Setting Map Parameters**

Set “Basic Boundaries”, choose a “Map Projection”, define your “Options”, bullet “download disabled” under “Download:” *Note: blue text has been added and is NOT part of the webpage

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**Setting Map Parameters cont.**

Scroll down and select “plot user defined locations” Enter home town coordinates in text box EXACTLY AS SHOWN Check “Annotate locations” “Create Map” when finished

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Your New Map If your map didn’t generate, run through this troubleshooting list: Don’t include characters such as “W” or “N” in your place address Make sure longitude precedes latitude in the text box (reverse order from zip code address) There MUST be commas between lat., long., and you hometown name If your place isn’t on the map, make sure you placed a “-” in front of longitude address if you live in W. Hem. A link on the homepage of this website: “some information” will give you detailed instructions on how to input parameters If you’re successful, your map should look something like this:

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Right Click in picture, “Save picture as” Give an appropriate name and make sure extension = extension in “save as type” box

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**Inserting Map in Microsoft FrontPage**

Open your saved project 1 template in Microsoft Frontpage Place cursor where you want picture Go to: “Insert>Picture>From File” Find your saved map and click “Ok”

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**UTM Coordinates Acronym for Universal Transverse Mercator system**

Overall, its main purpose is to portray a flat grid on a flat Mercator projection. The normal Mercator Projection is produced by theoretically wrapping a cylinder around a circle, and projecting the continents onto that surface, as if there was a light in the center of the globe. The projection only has one axis extending between the poles

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UTM Coordinates cont. Universal Transverse Mercator projection stems from the Normal Mercator projection Uses the same idea of a hypothetical cylindrical 2D surface surrounding the globe 30 axes instead of 1 and the cylinder is on its side; essentially the Mercator projection has been rotated 90°

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UTM Coordinates cont. The 30 different axis create 60 longitudal sections of the earth, all separated by 6 degrees. UTM Coordinates are the most accurate way we know of to locate a point on earth, but still lack the ability to locate a point above or below 80 degrees south latitude to 84 degrees north latitude.

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**Getting Your UTM Coordinates**

In the Project 1 template, scroll down to “Sources” and click the link: Scroll down to the link under “Interactive Conversions”: Latitude/Longitude -> UTM Insert lat./long. address as shown below and to the right

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**State Plane Coordinate System**

Based on Transverse Mercator, Lambert Conic Conformal, and the Oblique Mercator Projections Divides all 50 states into 122 different plane coordinate systems Error is reduced to 1 square meter per 10,000 square meters Error reduction due to smaller geographic area covered than UTM (larger scale)

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**State Plane Coordinates cont.**

Consists of a horizontal and vertical reference grid which works better on 2D surfaces than 3D surfaces Despite possible error, this system is widely used because it’s quicker than calculating geographic data using spherical coordinates

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**Getting Your SPC (State Plane Coordinates)**

In the Project 1 template, scroll down to “Sources” and click the link: Scroll down to the link under “Interactive Conversions”: Latitude/Longitude -> SPC Insert lat./long. Address as shown below

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How to Find Your “Zone” Return to the website homepage and under “Interactive Conversions” click the link: Find Zone Bullet “By County” on the following page

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**How to Find Your “Zone” cont.**

Scroll down and find your state and click “Submit” Scroll down and find you county and click “Submit” Your zone is outlined in yellow below (won’t be outlined on site)

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**Contrasts and Conclusion**

Geographic coordinates are the easiest for day-to-day use. They specify positions based on lines of latitude and longitude that originate from coordinates 0,0. UTM coordinates divide the world into zones 6 degrees longitude wide on a flat grid to easily see and determine location. SPC coordiates are used much the same as UTM but are specifically for the United States, creating 122 zones.

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