3Diversity of Nervous Systems Simple, slow moving animals like hydra have neurons arranged in a network of bipolar neurons called a nerve net.
4Basic Tasks of the Nervous System Sensory Input: Monitor both external and internal environments.Integration: Process the information and often integrate it with stored information.Motor output: If necessary, signal effector organs to make an appropriate response.
6A system that controls all of the activities of the body. Nervous SystemA system that controls all of the activities of the body.The nervous system is made of:The spinal cordThe brainThe nervesThe senses
7The nervous system also allows you to react to a stimulus. A stimulus is a change in the environment.Example: A hot stoveOr… tripping over a rock
8Your reactions are automatic. Automatic Automatic means that you do not have to think about your reactions.Example: If a bug flies by your eye,you will blink.
9BrainAn organ that controls your emotions, your thoughts, and every movement you make.
10Central Nervous System The Central Nervous System is made of the brain and the spinal cord.The Central Nervous System controls everything in the body.
11The Outer Nervous System is made of the nerves and the sense organs.
12Messages carried throughout the body by nerves. Nerve ImpulseMessages carried throughout the body by nerves.
13The “funny bone” is on the elbow. You have a nerve along your whole arm."Funny Bone"The “funny bone” is the only place on the arm where the nerve is not protected.The “funny bone” is on the elbow.
14Anatomy of a Neuron Cell body: functional portion Dendrites: short extensions that receive signalsAxon: long extension that transmits impulses away
15Nerve Impulse - The Action Potential Threshold potential will trigger an action potential or nerve impulseThe action potential is an all-or-none response
16Myelinated NeuronsMany vertebrate peripheral neurons have an insulating sheath around the axon called myelin which is formed by Schwann cells.Myelin sheathing allows these neurons to conduct nerve impulses faster than in non-myelinated neurons.
17Saltatory Conduction in Myelinated Axons Myelin sheathing has bare patches of axon called nodes of RanvierAction potentials jump from node to nodeFig
18How does a signal move from one neuron to another? A synape divides 2 neuronsThe action potential will not move across the synapeNeuro transmittersReleased by the signal cell to the receiver cellMove by diffusion
20Types of chemical synapse Acetylcholine: neuromuscular junctions, glands, brain and spinal cordNorepinepherine: affects brain regions concerned with emotions, dreaming
21The Central Nervous System The Nervous SystemThe Central Nervous System
22The Central Nervous System * The Central Nervous System controls all of the body’s activities.* The Central Nervous System is made of two main organs.1. The brain2. The spinal cord
23The Spinal Cord* The spinal cord sends messages to the brain.* The spinal cord is the part of the nervous system that connects the brain to the rest of the nervous system.
24The Brain* The brain controls everything in the body.* The brain is made of more than 10 billion nerves!* The brain is divided into three parts and is protected by the skull.
25The Three Parts of the Brain * The Brain has three main parts…1. The Cerebrum2. The Cerebellum3. The Brain Stem
26* The Cerebrum is the largest part of the brain. 1. The cerebrum controls your thinking.2. The cerebrum controls your memory.3. The cerebrum controls your speaking.4. The cerebrum controls your movement and identifies the information gathered by your sense organs.
34Outer Nervous System* The outer nervous system carries messages between the central nervous system and the rest of the body.* The Outer Nervous System’s job is to connect the Central Nervous System to the rest of the body.
35* The outer nervous system is made of the nerves and the sense organs. EyeTongueEarNervesSkin
36* An automatic reaction that happens without thinking about it. Reflex* An automatic reaction that happens without thinking about it.* A reflex happens quickly in less than a second.
38Automatic Nervous System * The outer nervous system controls the body’s activities that you don’t think about.* The outer nervous system controls activities in your small intestine, your breathing, and your heartbeat.controls
49Myopia (Near-Sightedness) People with near-sightedness cannot see clearly at distance.
50Hyperopia (Farsightedness) People with far-sightedness cannot see clearly up close
51When a sound is made, the air around the sound vibrates. HearingHearing starts when some of the sound waves go into the ear.
52Parts of the EarThere are nine main parts of the ear.1. Pinna5. Anvil2. Ear canal6. Stirrup3. Ear drum7. Cochlea4. Hammer8. Eustachian tube9. Auditory nerve
53The pinna is the part of the ear that you can see. Parts of the EarThe pinna is the part of the ear that you can see.The ear canal is the tube between the outside of the ear and the ear drum.The ear drum is in the middle ear. It vibrates when sound waves hit it.
54The stirrup passes the vibrations to the inner ear. Parts of the EarThe three smallest bones in the body, the hammer, the anvil, and the stirrup, are in the middle ear.The hammer gets the vibrations from the eardrum, then sends them to the anvil.The anvil passes the vibrations to the stirrup.The stirrup passes the vibrations to the inner ear.
55The inner ear is made of the cochlea and liquid. Parts of the EarThe Eustachian tube controls the amount of pressure in the ear.The inner ear is made of the cochlea and liquid.The cochlea is in the inner ear. The cochlea looks like a shell.The auditory nerve carries the hearing information to the brain and the brain tells us what we heard.
56The ear works with the brain to control your balance. The Ear and BalanceThe ear works with the brain to control your balance.All of your movements are controlled by balance and muscles.The liquid in your inner ear is responsible for your balance.The liquid in your ear moves when we move. The liquid movement sends information to the brain to tell it how we are moving.
62Tastes and smells work together to make flavors. Flavors are the tastes of food and drinks.
63Addictive Drug Use: Tobacco, Alcohol, & Illicit Drugs Dr. Robert B. CoambsPsy333November, 2002
64Pharmacology of Addictive Drugs All addictive drugs produce:Short-term pleasure to some degreeLong-term negative consequencesTolerance & physical dependenceA withdrawal syndromeActivation of dopamine neurons in the Nucleus Accumbens
71Cocaine inhibits the re-uptake of dopamine producing effects such as increased heart rate and blood pressure
72Nicotine fills & activates acetylcholine binding sites producing effects such as increased heart rate and blood pressure
73What is Addiction?All definitions describe behaviour which produces positive sensations in the short term, but negative consequences in the long termA straightforward definition:Compulsive useLoss of controlUse despite harm* Portnoy
74How People Start Using Drugs GeneticsPredisposing risk factors:Age for onsetPrimitive character structuresEspecially Conduct DisorderPeer influenceParental influenceSmoking and alcohol useConstricted temporal focus?
75Nicotine Use is Associated With Other Drug Use Kozlowski, Coambs, et al., 1989
76Some People Never Start Factors which reduce risk:Age 35+Nuanced character structuresNo Peer influenceNo Parental drug use historyNo other smoking or alcohol abuseE.G., the SISAP
77Basic Treatment For Addiction Treat the urges directly, if possibleEstablish why the person uses the drugWhat needs are being fulfilled by that drug?Find methods to fulfil those needs without the drug
78How People Quit Drug Abuse Most quit on their own (cold turkey)Most use no medicationProbably those people who can quit easily do soClinicians tend to see the difficult casesAmbivalence is normalMost quit by age 40
79Relapse Prevention Plan for relapse: Abstinence Violation Effect Relapse is common: it is not failure!Repeated relapse is associated with success in quittingLearn from it in next attemptFind a way to control urges