5I. What is Terrorism? An asymmetric form of conflict US Dept of State: “Terrorism is premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against non-combatant targets by sub-national groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience.”Terrorism is a criminal act that influences an audience beyond the immediate victimTheir strategy: to commit acts of violence that draws the attention of the local populace, the govt., & the world to their cause.
6II. Early History of Terrorism The Sicarii & the ZealotsJewish groups active during Roman occupationSicarii (dagger men)Zealots (a fanatical partisan)An underground campaign of assassination of Roman occupation forces and Jews who collaborated w/ themKilling usually took place in daylight and w/ witnesses to send a message to Roman authorities
7The Assassins The Thugees 11th century offshoot of a Shia Muslim sect known as the IsmailisStabbed politicians and clerics who refused to adopt their form of IslamAssassin means “Hashish-eater” – rumored to have indulged in drugs prior to their killingsThe ThugeesIndian religious cultStrangled victims (usually random travelers) as an offering to the Hindu goddess of terror and destruction, Kali
8The French Revolution The Reign of Terror First use of the term “Terror” and “Terrorists”Maximilien Robespierre and the Committee for Public Safety publicly executed over 40,000 people by guillotine“without virtue, terror is destructive; without terror, virtue is impotent. Terror is only justice prompt, severe and inflexible”M. Robespierre
10In the latter half of the 19th century, terrorism was adopted by adherents of anarchism in Western Europe, Russia, and the United States. They believed that the best way to effect revolutionary political and social change was to assassinate persons in positions of power.