Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter 8 An Introduction to Metabolism. You should be able to: 1. Distinguish between the following pairs of terms: catabolic and anabolic pathways;

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 An Introduction to Metabolism. You should be able to: 1. Distinguish between the following pairs of terms: catabolic and anabolic pathways;"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 8 An Introduction to Metabolism

2 You should be able to: 1. Distinguish between the following pairs of terms: catabolic and anabolic pathways; kinetic and potential energy; open and closed systems; exergonic and endergonic reactions 2. In your own words, explain the second law of thermodynamics and explain why it is not violated by living organisms 3. Explain in general terms how cells obtain the energy to do cellular work Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

3 4. Explain how ATP performs cellular work 5. Explain why an investment of activation energy is necessary to initiate a spontaneous reaction 6. Describe the mechanisms by which enzymes lower activation energy 7. Describe how allosteric regulators may inhibit or stimulate the activity of an enzyme Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

4 Overview: The Energy of Life The living cell is a miniature chemical factory where thousands of reactions occur The cell extracts energy and applies energy to perform work Some organisms even convert energy to light, as in bioluminescence Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

5 Concept 8.1: An organism s metabolism transforms matter and energy, subject to the laws of thermodynamics Metabolism is the totality of an organisms chemical reactions Metabolism is an emergent property of life that arises from interactions between molecules within the cell Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

6 Organization of the Chemistry of Life into Metabolic Pathways A metabolic pathway begins with a specific molecule and ends with a product Each step is catalyzed by a specific enzyme Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

7 Fig. 8-UN1 Enzyme 1Enzyme 2Enzyme 3 D CB A Reaction 1Reaction 3Reaction 2 Starting molecule Product

8 Catabolic pathways release energy by breaking down complex molecules into simpler compounds Cellular respiration, the breakdown of glucose in the presence of oxygen, is an example of a pathway of catabolism Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

9 Anabolic pathways consume energy to build complex molecules from simpler ones The synthesis of protein from amino acids is an example of anabolism Bioenergetics is the study of how organisms manage their energy resources Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

10 Forms of Energy Energy is the capacity to cause change Energy exists in various forms, some of which can perform work Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

11 Kinetic energy is energy associated with motion Heat (thermal energy) is kinetic energy associated with random movement of atoms or molecules Potential energy is energy that matter possesses because of its location or structure Chemical energy is potential energy available for release in a chemical reaction Energy can be converted from one form to another Animation: Energy Concepts Animation: Energy Concepts Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

12 Fig. 8-2 Climbing up converts the kinetic energy of muscle movement to potential energy. A diver has less potential energy in the water than on the platform. Diving converts potential energy to kinetic energy. A diver has more potential energy on the platform than in the water.

13 The Laws of Energy Transformation Thermodynamics is the study of energy transformations A closed system, such as that approximated by liquid in a thermos, is isolated from its surroundings In an open system, energy and matter can be transferred between the system and its surroundings Organisms are open systems Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

14 The First Law of Thermodynamics According to the first law of thermodynamics, the energy of the universe is constant: – Energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed The first law is also called the principle of conservation of energy Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

15 The Second Law of Thermodynamics During every energy transfer or transformation, some energy is unusable, and is often lost as heat According to the second law of thermodynamics : – Every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy (disorder) of the universe Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

16 Fig. 8-3 (a) First law of thermodynamics (b) Second law of thermodynamics Chemical energy Heat CO 2 H2OH2O +

17 Living cells unavoidably convert organized forms of energy to heat Spontaneous processes occur without energy input; they can happen quickly or slowly For a process to occur without energy input, it must increase the entropy of the universe Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

18 Biological Order and Disorder Cells create ordered structures from less ordered materials Organisms also replace ordered forms of matter and energy with less ordered forms Energy flows into an ecosystem in the form of light and exits in the form of heat Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

19 The evolution of more complex organisms does not violate the second law of thermodynamics Entropy (disorder) may decrease in an organism, but the universes total entropy increases Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

20 Concept 8.2: The free-energy change of a reaction tells us whether or not the reaction occurs spontaneously Biologists want to know which reactions occur spontaneously and which require input of energy To do so, they need to determine energy changes that occur in chemical reactions Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

21 Free-Energy Change, G A living systems free energy is energy that can do work when temperature and pressure are uniform, as in a living cell Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

22 The change in free energy (G) during a process is related to the change in enthalpy, or change in total energy (H), change in entropy (S), and temperature in Kelvin (T): G = H – TS Only processes with a negative G are spontaneous Spontaneous processes can be harnessed to perform work Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

23 Free Energy, Stability, and Equilibrium Free energy is a measure of a systems instability, its tendency to change to a more stable state During a spontaneous change, free energy decreases and the stability of a system increases Equilibrium is a state of maximum stability A process is spontaneous and can perform work only when it is moving toward equilibrium Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

24 Fig. 8-5 (a) Gravitational motion (b) Diffusion(c) Chemical reaction More free energy (higher G) Less stable Greater work capacity In a spontaneous change The free energy of the system decreases (G < 0) The system becomes more stable The released free energy can be harnessed to do work Less free energy (lower G) More stable Less work capacity

25 Fig. 8-5a Less free energy (lower G) More stable Less work capacity More free energy (higher G) Less stable Greater work capacity In a spontaneous change The free energy of the system decreases (G < 0) The system becomes more stable The released free energy can be harnessed to do work

26 Fig. 8-5b Spontaneous change Spontaneous change Spontaneous change (b) Diffusion(c) Chemical reaction(a) Gravitational motion

27 Free Energy and Metabolism The concept of free energy can be applied to the chemistry of lifes processes Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

28 Exergonic and Endergonic Reactions in Metabolism An exergonic reaction proceeds with a net release of free energy and is spontaneous An endergonic reaction absorbs free energy from its surroundings and is nonspontaneous Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

29 Fig. 8-6 Reactants Energy Free energy Products Amount of energy released (G < 0) Progress of the reaction (a) Exergonic reaction: energy released Products Reactants Energy Free energy Amount of energy required (G > 0) (b) Endergonic reaction: energy required Progress of the reaction

30 Fig. 8-6a Energy (a) Exergonic reaction: energy released Progress of the reaction Free energy Products Amount of energy released (G < 0) Reactants

31 Fig. 8-6b Energy (b) Endergonic reaction: energy required Progress of the reaction Free energy Products Amount of energy required (G > 0) Reactants

32 Equilibrium and Metabolism Reactions in a closed system eventually reach equilibrium and then do no work Cells are not in equilibrium; they are open systems experiencing a constant flow of materials A defining feature of life is that metabolism is never at equilibrium A catabolic pathway in a cell releases free energy in a series of reactions Closed and open hydroelectric systems can serve as analogies Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

33 Fig. 8-7 (a) An isolated hydroelectric system G < 0G = 0 (b) An open hydroelectric system G < 0 (c) A multistep open hydroelectric system

34 Fig. 8-7a (a) An isolated hydroelectric system G < 0G = 0

35 Fig. 8-7b (b) An open hydroelectric system G < 0

36 Fig. 8-7c (c) A multistep open hydroelectric system G < 0

37 Concept 8.3: ATP powers cellular work by coupling exergonic reactions to endergonic reactions A cell does three main kinds of work: Chemical Transport Mechanical To do work, cells manage energy resources by energy coupling, the use of an exergonic process to drive an endergonic one Most energy coupling in cells is mediated by ATP Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

38 The Structure and Hydrolysis of ATP ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is the cells energy shuttle ATP is composed of ribose (a sugar), adenine (a nitrogenous base), and three phosphate groups Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

39 Fig. 8-8 Phosphate groups Ribose Adenine

40 The bonds between the phosphate groups of ATPs tail can be broken by hydrolysis Energy is released from ATP when the terminal phosphate bond is broken This release of energy comes from the chemical change to a state of lower free energy, not from the phosphate bonds themselves Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

41 Fig. 8-9 Inorganic phosphate Energy Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) P P P PP P + + H2OH2O i

42 How ATP Performs Work The three types of cellular work (mechanical, transport, and chemical) are powered by the hydrolysis of ATP In the cell, the energy from the exergonic reaction of ATP hydrolysis can be used to drive an endergonic reaction Overall, the coupled reactions are exergonic Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

43 Fig (b) Coupled with ATP hydrolysis, an exergonic reaction Ammonia displaces the phosphate group, forming glutamine. (a) Endergonic reaction (c) Overall free-energy change P P Glu NH 3 NH 2 Glu i ADP + P ATP + + Glu ATP phosphorylates glutamic acid, making the amino acid less stable. Glu NH 3 NH 2 Glu + Glutamic acid Glutamine Ammonia G = +3.4 kcal/mol + 2 1

44 ATP drives endergonic reactions by phosphorylation, transferring a phosphate group to some other molecule, such as a reactant The recipient molecule is now phosphorylated Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

45 Fig (b) Mechanical work: ATP binds noncovalently to motor proteins, then is hydrolyzed Membrane protein P i ADP + P Solute Solute transported P i VesicleCytoskeletal track Motor protein Protein moved (a) Transport work: ATP phosphorylates transport proteins ATP

46 The Regeneration of ATP ATP is a renewable resource that is regenerated by addition of a phosphate group to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) The energy to phosphorylate ADP comes from catabolic reactions in the cell The chemical potential energy temporarily stored in ATP drives most cellular work Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

47 Fig P i ADP + Energy from catabolism (exergonic, energy-releasing processes) Energy for cellular work (endergonic, energy-consuming processes) ATP + H2OH2O

48 Concept 8.4: Enzymes speed up metabolic reactions by lowering energy barriers A catalyst is a chemical agent that speeds up a reaction without being consumed by the reaction An enzyme is a catalytic protein Hydrolysis of sucrose by the enzyme sucrase is an example of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

49 Fig Sucrose (C 12 H 22 O 11 ) Glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) Fructose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) Sucrase

50 The Activation Energy Barrier Every chemical reaction between molecules involves bond breaking and bond forming The initial energy needed to start a chemical reaction is called the free energy of activation, or activation energy (E A ) Activation energy is often supplied in the form of heat from the surroundings Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

51 Fig Progress of the reaction Products Reactants G < O Transition state Free energy EAEA DC BA D D C C B B A A

52 How Enzymes Lower the E A Barrier Enzymes catalyze reactions by lowering the E A barrier Enzymes do not affect the change in free energy (G); instead, they hasten reactions that would occur eventually Animation: How Enzymes Work Animation: How Enzymes Work Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

53 Fig Progress of the reaction Products Reactants G is unaffected by enzyme Course of reaction without enzyme Free energy E A without enzyme E A with enzyme is lower Course of reaction with enzyme

54 Substrate Specificity of Enzymes The reactant that an enzyme acts on is called the enzymes substrate The enzyme binds to its substrate, forming an enzyme-substrate complex The active site is the region on the enzyme where the substrate binds Induced fit of a substrate brings chemical groups of the active site into positions that enhance their ability to catalyze the reaction Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

55 Fig Substrate Active site Enzyme Enzyme-substrate complex (b)(a)

56 Catalysis in the Enzymes Active Site In an enzymatic reaction, the substrate binds to the active site of the enzyme The active site can lower an E A barrier by Orienting substrates correctly Straining substrate bonds Providing a favorable microenvironment Covalently bonding to the substrate Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

57 Fig Substrates Enzyme Products are released. Products Substrates are converted to products. Active site can lower E A and speed up a reaction. Substrates held in active site by weak interactions, such as hydrogen bonds and ionic bonds. Substrates enter active site; enzyme changes shape such that its active site enfolds the substrates (induced fit). Active site is available for two new substrate molecules. Enzyme-substrate complex

58 Effects of Local Conditions on Enzyme Activity An enzymes activity can be affected by General environmental factors, such as temperature and pH Chemicals that specifically influence the enzyme Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

59 Effects of Temperature and pH Each enzyme has an optimal temperature in which it can function Each enzyme has an optimal pH in which it can function Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

60 Fig Rate of reaction Optimal temperature for enzyme of thermophilic (heat-tolerant) bacteria Optimal temperature for typical human enzyme (a) Optimal temperature for two enzymes (b) Optimal pH for two enzymes Rate of reaction Optimal pH for pepsin (stomach enzyme) Optimal pH for trypsin (intestinal enzyme) Temperature (ºC) pH

61 Cofactors Cofactors are nonprotein enzyme helpers Cofactors may be inorganic (such as a metal in ionic form) or organic An organic cofactor is called a coenzyme Coenzymes include vitamins Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

62 Enzyme Inhibitors Competitive inhibitors bind to the active site of an enzyme, competing with the substrate Noncompetitive inhibitors bind to another part of an enzyme, causing the enzyme to change shape and making the active site less effective Examples of inhibitors include toxins, poisons, pesticides, and antibiotics Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

63 Fig (a) Normal binding (c) Noncompetitive inhibition (b) Competitive inhibition Noncompetitive inhibitor Active site Competitive inhibitor Substrate Enzyme

64 Concept 8.5: Regulation of enzyme activity helps control metabolism Chemical chaos would result if a cells metabolic pathways were not tightly regulated A cell does this by switching on or off the genes that encode specific enzymes or by regulating the activity of enzymes Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

65 Allosteric Regulation of Enzymes Allosteric regulation may either inhibit or stimulate an enzymes activity Allosteric regulation occurs when a regulatory molecule binds to a protein at one site and affects the proteins function at another site Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

66 Allosteric Activation and Inhibition Most allosterically regulated enzymes are made from polypeptide subunits Each enzyme has active and inactive forms The binding of an activator stabilizes the active form of the enzyme The binding of an inhibitor stabilizes the inactive form of the enzyme Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

67 Fig Allosteric enyzme with four subunits Active site (one of four) Regulatory site (one of four) Active form Activator Stabilized active form Oscillation Non- functional active site Inhibitor Inactive form Stabilized inactive form (a) Allosteric activators and inhibitors Substrate Inactive form Stabilized active form (b) Cooperativity: another type of allosteric activation

68 Fig. 8-20a (a) Allosteric activators and inhibitors Inhibitor Non- functional active site Stabilized inactive form Inactive form Oscillation Activator Active formStabilized active form Regulatory site (one of four) Allosteric enzyme with four subunits Active site (one of four)

69 Cooperativity is a form of allosteric regulation that can amplify enzyme activity In cooperativity, binding by a substrate to one active site stabilizes favorable conformational changes at all other subunits Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

70 Fig. 8-20b (b) Cooperativity: another type of allosteric activation Stabilized active form Substrate Inactive form

71 Identification of Allosteric Regulators Allosteric regulators are attractive drug candidates for enzyme regulation Inhibition of proteolytic enzymes called caspases may help management of inappropriate inflammatory responses Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

72 Fig RESULTS EXPERIMENT Caspase 1 Active site SH Known active form Substrate SH Active form can bind substrate SH Allosteric binding site Known inactive form Allosteric inhibitor Hypothesis: allosteric inhibitor locks enzyme in inactive form S–S Caspase 1 Active formAllosterically inhibited form Inhibitor Inactive form

73 Fig. 8-21a SH Substrate Hypothesis: allosteric inhibitor locks enzyme in inactive form Active form can bind substrate S–S SH Active site Caspase 1 Known active form Known inactive form Allosteric binding site Allosteric inhibitor EXPERIMENT

74 Fig. 8-21b Caspase 1 RESULTS Active form Inhibitor Allosterically inhibited form Inactive form

75 Feedback Inhibition In feedback inhibition, the end product of a metabolic pathway shuts down the pathway Feedback inhibition prevents a cell from wasting chemical resources by synthesizing more product than is needed Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

76 Fig Intermediate C Feedback inhibition Isoleucine used up by cell Enzyme 1 (threonine deaminase) End product (isoleucine) Enzyme 5 Intermediate D Intermediate B Intermediate A Enzyme 4 Enzyme 2 Enzyme 3 Initial substrate (threonine) Threonine in active site Active site available Active site of enzyme 1 no longer binds threonine; pathway is switched off. Isoleucine binds to allosteric site

77 Specific Localization of Enzymes Within the Cell Structures within the cell help bring order to metabolic pathways Some enzymes act as structural components of membranes In eukaryotic cells, some enzymes reside in specific organelles; for example, enzymes for cellular respiration are located in mitochondria Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

78 Living Organisms and Order How do living organisms create macromolecules, organelles, cells, tissues, and complex higher-order structures? A The laws of thermodynamics do not apply to living organisms. B Living organisms create order by using energy from the sun. C Living organisms create order locally, but the energy transformations generate waste heat that increases the entropy of the universe.

79 Free Energy, Enthalpy, and Entropy When sodium chloride (table salt) crystals dissolve in water, the temperature of the solution decreases. This means that, for dissociation of Na + and Cl – ions, A the change in enthalpy (ΔH) is negative. B the change in enthalpy (ΔH) is positive, but the change in entropy is greater. C the reaction is endergonic, because it absorbs heat. D the reaction must be coupled to an exergonic reaction. E the reaction cannot occur spontaneously.

80 Life and Chemical Equilibrium Are chemical reactions at equilibrium in living cells? yes no only the exergonic reactions all reactions except those powered by ATP hydrolysis

81 Free Energy A reaction has a G of -5.6 kcal/mol. Which of the following would most likely be true? A The reaction could be coupled to power an endergonic reaction with a G of +8.8 kcal/mol. B The reaction would result in an increase in entropy (S) and a decrease in the energy content (H) of the system. C The reaction would result in products with a greater free-energy content than in the initial reactants.

82 Rate of a Chemical Reaction The oxidation of glucose to CO 2 and H 2 O is highly exergonic: ΔG = –636 kcal/mole. Why doesnt glucose spontaneously combust? A The glucose molecules lack the activation energy at room temperature. B There is too much CO 2 in the air. C CO 2 has higher energy than glucose. D The formation of six CO 2 molecules from one glucose molecule decreases entropy. E The water molecules quench the reaction.

83 Enzymes Firefly luciferase catalyzes the reaction luciferin + ATP adenyl-luciferin + pyrophosphate then the next reaction occurs spontaneously: adenyl-luciferin + O 2 oxyluciferin + H 2 O + CO 2 + AMP + light What is the role of luciferase? A Luciferase makes the ΔG of the reaction more negative. B Luciferase lowers the transition energy of the reaction. C Luciferase alters the equilibrium point of the reaction. D Luciferase makes the reaction irreversible. E all of the above

84 Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions In the energy diagram below, which of the lettered energy changes would be the same in both the enzyme-catalyzed and uncatalyzed reactions? A B C D E

85 Enzyme Inhibitors Vioxx and other prescription non-steroidal anti- inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are potent inhibitors of the cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme. High substrate concentrations reduce the efficacy of inhibition by these drugs. These drugs are A competitive inhibitors. B noncompetitive inhibitors. C allosteric regulators. D prosthetic groups. E feedback inhibitors.

86 Enzyme Regulation Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) activates the enzyme phosphofructokinase (PFK) by binding at a site distinct from the substrate binding site. This is an example of A cooperative activation. B allosteric activation. C activation by an enzyme cofactor. D coupling exergonic and endergonic reactions.


Download ppt "Chapter 8 An Introduction to Metabolism. You should be able to: 1. Distinguish between the following pairs of terms: catabolic and anabolic pathways;"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google