2 Popes and KingsIn the early middle ages most power was held by nobles and knightsAs time passed that power moved to be the Kings and PopesNearly everyone in Europe during the later middle ages belonged to the church, they viewed the pope as God’s representative on earth.The pope held great spiritual power, but also political power.After the Roman Empire collapsed,people looked to the pope as their leader.As a result, popes began to live as royalty.
3 The Power of the Kings Europe was broken into many small kingdoms. The most powerful were the countries of England France and the Holy Roman EmpireKings also believed they were given the power to lead by God.This discrepancy of who had the power from whom, lead to many disagreements by both sides
4 The Holy Roman EmpireThis empire grew out of what had been Charlemagne’s empire acquired with the pope’s approval.In the mid – 900s another emperor stepped in and because this was approved by the pope the people saw it as a “rebirth” of the Roman Empire.That is why they named it the Holy Roman EmpireSince Holy Roman emperors didn’t inherit their crowns, they were elected, these lead to fights between nobles and the emperorSometimes they had to call on the pope for help.
5 Popes Fight for PowerWestern Europe considered the Pope the leader but Eastern Europeans did not.In the east, bishops had long been in charge, in the mid 1000s, a series of clever popes wanted to increase their authority.They believed all religious officials should answer to the pope.Pope Leo IX argued that the first pope had been the leader of the entire Christian church, therefore, later popes should be as well.Many eastern bishops disagreed, most notably, the bishop of Constantinople, who wouldn’t recognize his authority.In 1054 Leo excommunicated that bishopThis act created a permanent split.Those who agreed with the bishop became known as Orthodox CatholicsThose who agreed with the pope became known as Roman Catholics
6 Kings and Popes ClashAs the popes tried to increase their power they began to come into conflict with the kingsKings felt that they had the right to select bishops for their region and popes disagreedRefer to page 527 in your textStudent with the most blue on read, where it begins…”In 1073”