8 Purposes of Mechanical Immobilization Most people who need mechanical immobilization have suffered trauma to the musculoskeletal systemThese type of injuries are painful and heal less rapidly than injuries to skin or soft tissue
9 Mechanical Immobilization Pt who are recovering from injury require a period of inactivity to allow new cells to restore integrity to the damaged area
10 General Purposes for Mechanical Immobilization *Relieves pain and muscle spasm*Supports and aligns skeletal injuries*Restricts movement while injury heals*Aids in maintaining a functional position until healing is complete*Allows activity while restricting movement of an injured area*Prevents further structural damage and deformity
11 Examples of Immobilizing Devices WE WILL DISCUSS:SplintsSlingsBracesCastsTraction
12 Splints This device immobilizes and protects an injured body part Splints are used before or instead of application of casts or traction
13 Emergency SplintsThese are applied as a first aid measure for suspected sprains or fracturesThese are placed on the pt by the paramedic or while at the E.R.
14 Commercial Splints These are available in various designs Examples: *Inflatable splints*Traction splints*Immobilizers*Molded splints*Cervical collar
15 Inflatable Splints These are also called pneumatic splints These become rigid when filled with airIn addition to limiting motion, they control bleeding and swelling
16 Inflatable SplintYou place the injured part in the deflated portion of the splint. When air is infused, the splint molds to the contour of the injured part, preventing movementOnce this type of splint is placed on a pt, the injury should be examined and treated within minutes after application , otherwise, circulation may be affected
17 Traction Splints These splints are usually made of metal They are applied to immobilize and pull on muscles that are in a state of contractionThis type of splint is meant to be temporary
18 ImmobilizersThese are usually made of cloth and foam and are usually held in place with adjustable Velcro strapsThese are used to limit motion in the area of healing the injury
19 ImmobilizersThese limit motion in the area of a painful but healing injury such as the neck and kneeImmobilizers are removed for brief periods during hygiene and dressing
20 Molded SplintsThese are made of rigid plastic and are used for chronic injuries or diseasesThey may be appropriate for pts with repetitive motion disorders such as carpal tunnel syndrome
21 Molded SplintsThese provide prolonged support and limit movement to prevent further injury and painThese maintain the body part in a functional position to prevent contractures and muscle atrophy during immobility
22 Cervical CollarIs a foam or rigid splint that is placed around the neckIt is usually used to treat athletic neck injuries or other trauma that results in a neck sprain or strain
23 Neck Strain Is sometimes referred to as “whiplash” Whiplash in athletics has decreased mainly d/t better supportive equipment.In auto accidents, the use of shoulder harnesses and neck supports has also caused a decrease in whiplash
24 A cervical collar reminds the pt to limit the movements of the head and neck These collars need to be fitted before application of them
25 Applying an Emergency Splint (1-11) 1. Keeping the injured parts in place prevents additional injuries so avoid changing the position of the injured part even if its grossly deformed2. Leave high top shoes or ski boots in place, these help to limit movement and reduce pain and swelling3. Cover open wounds to prevent entrance of microorganisms4. Select a rigid splinting material such as a flat board, broomstick or rolled up newspaper, this will help restrict movement
26 Applying an emergency splint 5. Pad bony prominences with soft material, padding prevents friction and pressure6. Apply the splint so that it spans the injured area from the joint above the injury to beyond the joint below the injury7. Use wide tape or wide strips of fabric to confine the injured part to the splint. Securing the body part prevents displacement and reduces the risk of compromising circulation
27 Applying an emergency splint 8. Loosen the splint or the material used to attach it if the fingers or toes are pale, blue, or cold. Loosening the splint allows for better circulation9. Elevate the immobilized part so the lowest or end part is higher than the heart, this reduces venous flow back to the heart10. Keep the pt warm and safe11. Seek assistance in transporting the pt to a health care facility
28 SlingsThis is a cloth device used to elevate, cradle and support parts of the bodySlings are commonly applied to the armMany pts use a commercial type of arm sling
29 BracesThese are designed to support weakened structures during weight bearingAny improperly fitting brace can cause discomfort, deformity and pressure soresThere are 3 categories of braces: ………
30 Braces1. Prophylactic braces – those used to prevent or reduce the severity of a joint injury2. Rehabilitative braces – those that allow protected motion of an injured joint that has been treated surgically3. Functional braces – those that provide stability for an unstable joint
31 Wearing a braceBecause pts generally wear a brace during active periods, they are always made of sturdy materials such as metalLeg braces may be incorporated into a shoe for added supportSome back braces are made with fabric or metal staves or strips for support
32 CastsA cast is a rigid mold that is placed around an injured body part after it has been restored to correct anatomic alignmentThe purpose of a cast is to immobilize the injured structureCasts are usually applied to fractured (broken) bonesCasts are formed using wetted rolls of plaster of Paris or premoistened rolls of fiberglass
37 Cylinder CastEncircles an arm or leg and leaves the toes and fingers exposed. The cast extends from the joints above and below the affected bone. This prevents movement by maintaining correct alignment during healing. As healing progresses, the cast may be trimmed or shortened
38 Body CastThis is just a larger form of a cylinder cast that encircles the trunk of the body instead of an extremityA body cast extends from the nipple line to the hipsFor pts with spinal problems, the body cast extends from the back of the head and chin area to the hips with modifications made for exposing the arms
39 Spica CastPURPOSE: used to keep the hips and legs from moving after surgery.This type of cast encircles one or both arms or legs and the chest or trunkIt is generally strengthened with a reinforcement bar (never grab the bar)When applied to the upper body, its called a shoulder spica, when applied to the lower extremity, its called a hip spica
40 Spica CastSpica casts of the lower extremity are heavy, hot and frustrating because they severely restrict movement and activityThese casts are trimmed in the genital and anal area to allow for elimination of urine and stoolThese pts cannot sit so the nurse must care for the cast and the pt frequently
41 Hip SpicaWhat are nursing concerns that you have for this person?
42 Reduction of an injuryIf a bone is broken, it must be reduced, fixed, or put back into placeReduction can be :OpenOrClosed
43 MEDLINE PLUSYou had a fracture (break) in the femur, also called the thigh bone, in your leg. You may have needed surgery to repair the bone. You may have had surgery called an open reduction. Your surgeon used special metal devices to hold your bones in place while they heal. These devices are called internal fixators.The complete name of this surgery is open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF).In the most common surgery to repair a femur fracture, the surgeon inserts a rod or large nail into the center of the bone. This rod helps support the bone until it heals. The surgeon may also put a plate next to your bone that is attached by screws to a frame outside your leg
44 Open ReductionAn incision is made near the affected broken area and the use of pins to help keep the part aligned, are usedThe affected area is then casted for immobilizationORIF – open reduction internal fixation, no pins to clean, it’s all inside
45 Closed ReductionThere is NO incision, the affected bone is repositioned (reduced back to normal) and may be held with screws on the outside or is casted to keep bone in place
46 Care of the Patient with a spica cast Plastic wrap is tucked around any opening of the castGauze is also used and the pt must use a fractional bed pan
48 Bivalved CastThis is a cast that started out as a cylinder type cast and it was then cut into 2 pieces, lengthwise, so that one layer fits on the underside of the arm (for example) and the top piece fits over the upper armThis type of cast promotes bathing of the body part
49 Who uses a bivalved cast? *Pts with a lot of swelling that interferes with circulation*If a pt is being weaned from the cast*If many x-rays are needed*If pt has painful joints that need to be immobilized temporarily as in pts with arthritis
50 Cast Application Requires more than 1 person The Dr. repositions the affected bone and then applies the castThe nurse prepares the pt and supplies then assists the Dr.A light-curred fiberglass cast requires exposure to UV light to harden
52 Cast RemovalA cast is removed when it needs to be changed or when the injury has healed sufficientlyA cast removed prematurely can cause complicationsCasts are removed with an electric cast cutter that looks like a sawPts become frightened by the noise of the saw and the feeling that their limb will be cut in to
56 Biggest problem that can occur when casted? Compartment syndromeA condition in which nerves and tendons under the skin are constricted due to the edema that occurs after injury and casting. What can this lead to?
58 Post cast care*The unexercised muscle of the affected part is usually weak and smaller than it used to be*The joints have limited range of motion*The skin usually appears pale and waxy and may contain scales or patches of dead skin*The area is washed with warm soapy water and lotion is sometimes applied to add moisture, eventually, the dead fragments will slough off
59 Care of the pt with a newly applied cast A pt can bear weight within minutes after the application of a castPlaster casts remain wet for hrs depending on the level of humidity in the airThe nurse should use the palms of the hand to move the affected partA fan can be used to speed dryingDo not cover the casted area with linensChange positions of the casted area to allow all parts to dryHeat lamp may be used to dry castThe casted area is then elevated to avoid swelling
61 Care of the casted ptOne of the major problems with the application of a cast is swelling which affects circulation…badOnce the cast is applied and swelling has occurred, the Dr. must be notified to “window” the castA cut is made in the cast to relieve the swelling
63 What to assess when one is casted *Perform the blanch test by pressing on the skin around the cast*Assess nailbeds of affected limb for circulation*Keep casted area elevated above the heart*Assess the edges of the cast for roughness, if so, tuck gauze into cast around edges* assess pulses if you can*Follow Dr. orders for circ checks, starts out to be Qhr x 24 hrs, then Q4hr for 2-3 days then Q shift
64 Cast AssessmentWhat are the important things to assess related to the cast?
65 Drs. Orders Follow Drs. Orders at all times Certain Drs. Will order particular care or treatment
66 Pedal edges of cast so crumbs won’t get down into cast NEVER ALLOW THE PT TO STICK ANYTHING INTO CAST TO SCRATCH,No coat hangers, pencils, pens, rulers, forks, knives, mail openers, straws…NOTHINGIf skin tears or breaks, dark, warm, moist area inside the cast, what will happen?????
67 TractionIs a pulling effect that is exerted on a part of the skeletal systemTraction is used for musculoskeletal trauma remember that traction is used for:Reduce muscle spasmsRealign bonesRelieve painPrevent deformities
68 TractionThe pull of the traction is offset by the counterpull from the client’s own body weightApplication of traction uses weights connected to the pt through a system of ropes, pulleys, slings and other equipment
69 Types of TractionManual TractionSkin TractionSkeletal Traction
70 Manual TractionMeans pulling on the body using a person’s hands and muscular strengthIt is most often used briefly to realign a broken boneIt is also used to replace a dislocated bone into its original position within a joint
71 Skin TractionMeans a pulling effect on the skeletal system by applying devices such as a pelvic belt and a cervical halter, to the skinOther names for skin traction is Buck’s traction and Russell’s traction
72 Skeletal tractionMeans pull exerted directly on the skeletal system by attaching wires, pins, or tongs into or through a boneSkeletal traction is applied continuously for an extended period
73 External FixationIs a metal device inserted into and through one or more broken bones to stabilize fragments during healingThis external fixator immobilizes the area of injury, the pt is encourages to be active and mobileOREF – open reduction external fixation, pins to clean
74 External FixationWhat are the special nursing needs for this patient?
76 Internal FixationWhat are your nursing concerns?
77 Pin CareCare must be given to the pins that are sticking out of the skin to prevent infection and to promote healingUsually cotton tip applicators are soaked in H2O2 – hydrogen peroxide, and the nurse swabs around the pins to clean themWe used to place bacitracin around the pin entrance site, but stagnant bacitracin has been known to cause growth of bacteria at the pin site
89 What is an ACE wrap? A.K.A. compression bandage An ace wrap is an elastic bandage that comes in different sizes.The wrap comes in a roll with metal clips, with tape to fasten it in place, or Velcro™ .The bandage may be from 2 to 6 inches (5 to 15 cm) wide and 4 to 6 feet (1.2 to 1.8 m) long.Elastic bandages can be bought at any medical supply or drug store.Your caregiver will help you choose the best bandage for you.
90 PURPOSE:An ace wrap puts gentle pressure on the tissue around an injury providing supportTo help reduce swelling of an injured area of the body.To hold wound bandages in place.To wrap around an arm or leg splint during healing.To improve blood flow to a limb like an arm or leg.To hold cold or hot packs in place on a body part, such as an arm.
91 How to put an ACE wrap on… Hold the rolled bandage with one hand and with the other hand put the loose end on top of the foot.While holding the loose end, wrap the bandage twice around the foot. Be sure to overlap the ace wrap.After the foot has been wrapped twice, move your hand to the heel.Wrap the bandage moving toward the ankle. The bandage should be wrapped in a spiral way like making a figure 8.Leave the heel uncovered.Cross the bandage over the foot, moving upward, and pass it behind the ankle.Move the bandage down and cross it over the top of the foot.Wrap the bandage under the foot to complete the 8 figure. Repeat this one more time.Pass the bandage around your calf and start wrapping it toward the knee.Stop wrapping below the knee. You don't need to start coming down again.The end of the bandage can be fastened with tape or metal clips.
92 NANDA Diagnoses Acute Pain Impaired physical mobility Risk for disuse syndromeRisk for impaired skin integrityRisk for ineffective tissue perfusionSelf care deficit