2Recommendations for Meeting the Needs of Struggling Readers READING NEXTRecommendations for Meeting the Needs of Struggling Readers
315 Recommendations Direct, explicit comprehension instruction Effective instructional principles embedded in contentMotivation and self-directing learningText-based collaborative learningStrategic tutoringDiverse texts
4Recommendations Con’t Intensive writingTechnologyOngoing formative assessment of studentsExtended time for literacyProfessional developmentOngoing summative assessment of students and programsTeacher teamsLeadershipA comprehensive and coordinated literacy program
5Combine Elements Flexibly try out various combinations Must include the following:Professional DevelopmentFormative AssessmentSummative Assessment
6Programs Planned Variation Evaluate implementation using a common processAllow for comparisons across programsOutcomes and ProceduresFor evaluation to promote cross-program comparisons.
7Key Part to These Programs Should not be used in isolationShould be used in a dynamic and powerful interrelationship.
8Instruction and Infrastructure School reformCurricular Improvement
9Instructional Elements Direct, explicit comprehension instructionComprehension strategiesComprehension monitoring and metacognition instructionTeacher modelingScaffolding instructionApprenticeship models
10Effective Instructional Principles Embedded in Content Teaches technique and content-area materialsReinforce instruction in the skills and strategies that are effective and coordinate it with an emphasis on reading and writing practicesGraphic OrganizersPrompted OutlinesGuided Discussions
11Motivation and Self-Directed Learning Promote greater student engagement and motivationLet them select materials to read and topics to researchPromote relevancy
12Text-Based Collaborative Learning Interact with each other around a textTeachers provide scaffolding for engagement at every ability level and promote better oral language and content-area skills.
13Strategic Tutoring Individualized instruction Be taught “how to learn” Teach learning strategiesEmpower adolescents to complete similar tasks independently in the future.
14Diverse TextsProviding students with diverse texts, topics, and reading levels.High interest and low readabilityLink multiple ability levels
15Intensive Writing Help students improve their writing skills Writing instruction helps improve reading comprehensionIncrease the amount of writing and also the quality of writing
16A Technology Component Technology is a facilitator of literacy and a medium of literacy.Instructional reinforcement and opportunities for guided practice.
17Ongoing Formative Assessment of Students Informal and frequently on a daily basisTrack progressInform instruction
18Infrastructural Elements Extended Time for LiteracyProfessional DevelopmentOngoing Summative Assessment of Students and ProgramsTeacher TeamsLeadershipA Comprehensive and Coordinated Literacy Program
19Extended Time for Literacy 2 – 4 hours of literacy-connected learning dailyTeachers need to realize that they are not only teaching content but also ways of reading and writing.
20Professional Development Ongoing, long-termInclude teachers, coaches, librarians, and administrators.Built into regular school scheduleLearn new research and practice
21Ongoing Summative Assessment of Students and Programs Implementation with continuous progress-monitoring system.FormalDemonstrate progress specific to school and program goals
22Teacher TeamsTeachers meet regularly to discuss students and to align instruction.Plan for consistency in instruction across subject areas.
23Leadership Principal is the instructional leader. Teachers assume leadership roles and spearhead curricular improvements.
24A Comprehensive and Coordinated Literacy Program Teachers coordinate literacy programs that teachers work on in teams and are responsible for a cohort of students.Recognize adolescents’ varying needs and develop a comprehensive program that will successfully address the needs of all their students.
25WRITING NEXTAll Students Need To Become Proficient and Flexible WritersProvide Guidance for Improving Writing Instruction
2611 Elements of Effective Adolescent Writing Instruction Writing StrategiesSummarizationCollaborative WritingSpecific Product GoalsWord ProcessingSentence Combining
27Elements Continued Prewriting Inquiry Activities Process Writing ApproachStudy of ModelsWriting for Content Learning
28Writing StrategiesExplicitly teach strategies for planning, revising, and/or editingSelf-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD)
29SRSD Develop Background Knowledge Describe It Model It Memorize It Support ItIndependent UsePlanWrite
30SummarizationExplicitly and systematically teaching students how to summarize texts.Write SummariesRule-Governed Approach orIntuitive Approach
31Collaborative Writing Peers Writing as a TeamDeveloping instructional arrangements where students work together to:PlanDraftReviseEdit
32Specific Product Goals Provides students with objectives to focus on particular aspects of their writing.Assigning students specific, reachable goals.
33Word Processing Can be particularly helpful for low-achieving writers. Work collaboratively on writing assignmentsNeat and legible script that can be easily changed.
34Sentence CombiningTeaching students to construct more complex and sophisticated sentences through exercises in which 2 or more basic sentences are combined into a single sentence.Enhance the quality of their writing.
35Pre-WritingEngages students in activities designed to help them generate or organize ideas for their composition.Gather informationReadingVisual Representations
36Inquiry ActivitiesStudents examine and analyze data in order to describe them in writing.Hands-on learningSharpen inquiry skills
37Process Writing Approach Involves several activities:Creating extended opportunities for writingEmphasizing writing for real audiencesEncourage planning, translating, and reviewingStress personal responsibility and ownershipFacilitate student interactionsSupportive writing environmentsSelf-reflection and evaluation
38Study of ModelsProvides good examples or models of different types of writing.Analyze examplesFind the critical elements, patterns, and forms
39Writing for Content Area Writing-To-LearnWriting in the content area helps the student learn the content better.75% if the writing-to-learn studies showed a positive effect.
40Bringing The Elements Together A comprehensive and coordinated literacy program includes the elements of both reading and writing strategies.All students can learn, and an informed and educated teacher can teach them how to learn.