2 Recommendations for Meeting the Needs of Struggling Readers READING NEXTRecommendations for Meeting the Needs of Struggling Readers
3 15 Recommendations Direct, explicit comprehension instruction Effective instructional principles embedded in contentMotivation and self-directing learningText-based collaborative learningStrategic tutoringDiverse texts
4 Recommendations Con’t Intensive writingTechnologyOngoing formative assessment of studentsExtended time for literacyProfessional developmentOngoing summative assessment of students and programsTeacher teamsLeadershipA comprehensive and coordinated literacy program
5 Combine Elements Flexibly try out various combinations Must include the following:Professional DevelopmentFormative AssessmentSummative Assessment
6 Programs Planned Variation Evaluate implementation using a common processAllow for comparisons across programsOutcomes and ProceduresFor evaluation to promote cross-program comparisons.
7 Key Part to These Programs Should not be used in isolationShould be used in a dynamic and powerful interrelationship.
8 Instruction and Infrastructure School reformCurricular Improvement
9 Instructional Elements Direct, explicit comprehension instructionComprehension strategiesComprehension monitoring and metacognition instructionTeacher modelingScaffolding instructionApprenticeship models
10 Effective Instructional Principles Embedded in Content Teaches technique and content-area materialsReinforce instruction in the skills and strategies that are effective and coordinate it with an emphasis on reading and writing practicesGraphic OrganizersPrompted OutlinesGuided Discussions
11 Motivation and Self-Directed Learning Promote greater student engagement and motivationLet them select materials to read and topics to researchPromote relevancy
12 Text-Based Collaborative Learning Interact with each other around a textTeachers provide scaffolding for engagement at every ability level and promote better oral language and content-area skills.
13 Strategic Tutoring Individualized instruction Be taught “how to learn” Teach learning strategiesEmpower adolescents to complete similar tasks independently in the future.
14 Diverse TextsProviding students with diverse texts, topics, and reading levels.High interest and low readabilityLink multiple ability levels
15 Intensive Writing Help students improve their writing skills Writing instruction helps improve reading comprehensionIncrease the amount of writing and also the quality of writing
16 A Technology Component Technology is a facilitator of literacy and a medium of literacy.Instructional reinforcement and opportunities for guided practice.
17 Ongoing Formative Assessment of Students Informal and frequently on a daily basisTrack progressInform instruction
18 Infrastructural Elements Extended Time for LiteracyProfessional DevelopmentOngoing Summative Assessment of Students and ProgramsTeacher TeamsLeadershipA Comprehensive and Coordinated Literacy Program
19 Extended Time for Literacy 2 – 4 hours of literacy-connected learning dailyTeachers need to realize that they are not only teaching content but also ways of reading and writing.
20 Professional Development Ongoing, long-termInclude teachers, coaches, librarians, and administrators.Built into regular school scheduleLearn new research and practice
21 Ongoing Summative Assessment of Students and Programs Implementation with continuous progress-monitoring system.FormalDemonstrate progress specific to school and program goals
22 Teacher TeamsTeachers meet regularly to discuss students and to align instruction.Plan for consistency in instruction across subject areas.
23 Leadership Principal is the instructional leader. Teachers assume leadership roles and spearhead curricular improvements.
24 A Comprehensive and Coordinated Literacy Program Teachers coordinate literacy programs that teachers work on in teams and are responsible for a cohort of students.Recognize adolescents’ varying needs and develop a comprehensive program that will successfully address the needs of all their students.
25 WRITING NEXTAll Students Need To Become Proficient and Flexible WritersProvide Guidance for Improving Writing Instruction
26 11 Elements of Effective Adolescent Writing Instruction Writing StrategiesSummarizationCollaborative WritingSpecific Product GoalsWord ProcessingSentence Combining
27 Elements Continued Prewriting Inquiry Activities Process Writing ApproachStudy of ModelsWriting for Content Learning
28 Writing StrategiesExplicitly teach strategies for planning, revising, and/or editingSelf-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD)
29 SRSD Develop Background Knowledge Describe It Model It Memorize It Support ItIndependent UsePlanWrite
30 SummarizationExplicitly and systematically teaching students how to summarize texts.Write SummariesRule-Governed Approach orIntuitive Approach
31 Collaborative Writing Peers Writing as a TeamDeveloping instructional arrangements where students work together to:PlanDraftReviseEdit
32 Specific Product Goals Provides students with objectives to focus on particular aspects of their writing.Assigning students specific, reachable goals.
33 Word Processing Can be particularly helpful for low-achieving writers. Work collaboratively on writing assignmentsNeat and legible script that can be easily changed.
34 Sentence CombiningTeaching students to construct more complex and sophisticated sentences through exercises in which 2 or more basic sentences are combined into a single sentence.Enhance the quality of their writing.
35 Pre-WritingEngages students in activities designed to help them generate or organize ideas for their composition.Gather informationReadingVisual Representations
36 Inquiry ActivitiesStudents examine and analyze data in order to describe them in writing.Hands-on learningSharpen inquiry skills
37 Process Writing Approach Involves several activities:Creating extended opportunities for writingEmphasizing writing for real audiencesEncourage planning, translating, and reviewingStress personal responsibility and ownershipFacilitate student interactionsSupportive writing environmentsSelf-reflection and evaluation
38 Study of ModelsProvides good examples or models of different types of writing.Analyze examplesFind the critical elements, patterns, and forms
39 Writing for Content Area Writing-To-LearnWriting in the content area helps the student learn the content better.75% if the writing-to-learn studies showed a positive effect.
40 Bringing The Elements Together A comprehensive and coordinated literacy program includes the elements of both reading and writing strategies.All students can learn, and an informed and educated teacher can teach them how to learn.