Presentation on theme: "Experimental Study on the 6+1 Trait® Writing Model"— Presentation transcript:
1Experimental Study on the 6+1 Trait® Writing Model Presented at the ASCD Annual ConferenceApril 3, 2005Dr. Michael KozlowNorthwest Regional Educational LaboratoryAssessment Program Director
2Agenda Overview the 6+1 Trait® Writing model and scoring rubrics Strategies that support classroom implementationResearch Study
3What Makes ‘Good’ Writing? DiscussionWhat Makes ‘Good’ Writing?
4The 6+1 Trait® Writing Model for Assessment and Instruction 1. IdeasIdeas are the heart of the message, the content of the piece, the main theme, together with the details that enrich and develop that theme.2. OrganizationOrganization is the internal structure, the thread of central meaning, the logical and sometimes intriguing pattern of ideas within a piece of writing.3. VoiceVoice is the magic and the wit, along with the feeling and conviction of the individual writer coming out through the words.
5The 6+1 Trait® Writing Model for Assessment and Instruction 4. Word ChoiceWord choice is the use of rich, colorful, precise language that moves and enlightens the reader.5. Sentence FluencySentence fluency is the rhythm and flow of the language, the sound of word patterns, the way in which the writing plays to the ear—not just to the eye.6. ConventionsConventions refer to the mechanical correctness of the piece—spelling, paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, and use of capitals.
6The 6+1 Trait® Writing Model for Assessment and Instruction +1. PresentationPresentation zeros in on the form and layout of the text and its readability; the piece should be pleasing to the eye.
7The 6+1 Trait® Writing Scoring Continuum Wow!Exceeds expectationsStrongShows control and skill in this trait; many strengths presentEffectiveOn balance, the strengths outweigh the weaknesses; a small amount of revision is neededDevelopingStrengths and need for revision are about equal; about half-way homeEmergingNeed for revision outweighs strengths; isolated moments hint at what the writer has in mindNot YetA bare beginning; writer not yet showing controlIdeasOrganizationVoiceWord ChoiceSentence FluencyConventionsPresentation
86+1 Trait® Writing Rubric Ideas Key Question: Did the writer stay focused and share original and fresh information or perspective about the topic?Ideas: The heart of the message, the content of the piece, the main theme, with details that enrich and develop that themeThis paper is clear and focused. It holds the reader’s attention. Relevant anecdotes and details enrich the central themeThe topic is narrow and manageableRelevant, telling, quality details go beyond the obviousReasonably accurate detailsWriting from knowledge or experience; ideas are fresh and originalReader’s questions are anticipated and answeredInsightThe writer is beginning to define the topic, even though development is still basic or generalThe topic is fairly broadSupport is attemptedIdeas are reasonably clearWriter has difficulty going from general observations to specificsThe reader is left with questionsThe writer stays on topicThe paper has no clear sense of purpose or central theme. The reader must make inferences based on sketchy or missing detailsThe writer is still in search of a topicInformation is limited or unclear or the length is not adequate for developmentThe idea is a simple statement or a simple answer to the questionThe writer has not begun to define the topicEverything seems as important as everything elseThe text may be repetitious, disconnected, and contains too many random thoughts
96+1 Trait® Writing Rubric Organization Key Question: Does the organizational structure enhance the ideas and make it easier to read?Organization: The internal structure, the thread of central meaning, the logical and sometimes intriguing pattern of ideas.The organizational structure of this paper enhances and showcases the central idea or theme of the paper; includes a satisfying introduction and conclusionAn inviting introduction draws the reader in; a satisfying conclusion leaves the reader with a sense of closure and resolutionThoughtful transitionsSequencing is logical and effectivePacing is well controlledThe title, if desired, is originalFlows so smoothly, the reader hardly thinks about itThe organizational structure is strong enough to move the reader through the text without too much confusionThe paper has a recognizable introduction and conclusionTransitions often work wellSequencing shows some logic, yet structure takes attention away from contentPacing is fairly well controlledOrganization sometimes supports the main point or storylineA title (if desired) is presentThe writing lacks a clear sense of directionNo real leadConnections between ideas are confusingSequencing needs workPacing feels awkwardNo title is present (if requested)Problems with organization make it hard for the reader to get a grip on the main point or storyline
106+1 Trait® Writing Rubric Voice Key Question: Would you keep reading this piece if it were longer? MUCH longer?Voice: The unique perspective of the writer coming through in the piece through honesty, conviction, integrity, and believabilityThe writer of this paper speaks directly to the reader in a manner that is individual, compelling, and respects the purpose and audience for the writing.Adds interest; appropriate of purpose and audienceThe reader feels a strong interaction with the writerThe writer takes a riskExpository or persuasive reflects understanding and commitment to topicNarrative writing seems honest, personal, and engagingThe writer seems sincere but not fully engaged or involved. The result is pleasant or even personable, but not compelling.Obvious generalitiesEarnest, pleasing, safe writingThe voice fades in and outExpository or persuasive writing lacks consistent engagementNarrative writing is reasonably sincereThe writer seems indifferent, uninvolved, or distanced from the topic and/or the audience.No concern with audienceMonotoneHum-drum and risk-freeLifeless or mechanicalNo point of view is present
116+1 Trait® Writing Rubric Word Choice Key Question: Do the words and phrases create vivid pictures and linger in your mind?Word Choice: The use of rich, colorful, precise language that moves and enlightens the readerWords convey the intended message in a precise, interesting, and natural wayWords are specific and accurateStriking words and phrasesNatural, effective, and appropriate languageLively verbs, specific nouns and modifiersLanguage enhances and clarifies meaningThe language is functional, even if it lacks much energyWords are adequate and correct in a general senseFamiliar words and phrases communicateAttempts at colorful languagePassive verbs, everyday nouns, mundane modifiersFunctional with one or two fine momentsOccasionally, the words show refinement and precisionThe writer struggles with a limited vocabularyWords are nonspecific or distractingMany of the words don’t workLanguage is used incorrectlyLimited vocabulary, misuse of parts of speechWords and phrases are unimaginative and lifelessJargon or clichés, persistent redundancy
126+1 Trait® Writing Rubric Sentence Fluency Key Question: Can you FEEL the words and phrases flow together as you read it aloud?Sentence Fluency: The rhythm and flow of the language, the sound of word patterns, the way in which the writing plays to the ear—not just to the eyeThe writing has an easy flow, rhythm and cadence. Sentences are well built.Sentences enhance the meaning.Sentences vary in length as well as structure.Purposeful and varied sentence beginnings.Creative and appropriate connectives.The writing has cadence.The text hums along with a steady beat, but tends to be more pleasant or businesslike than musical.Sentences get the job done in a routine fashion.Sentences are usually constructed correctly.Sentence beginnings are not ALL alike; some variety is attempted.The reader sometimes has to hunt for clues.Parts of the text invite expressive oral reading; others may be stiff, awkward, choppy, or gangly.The reader has to practice quite a bit in order to give this paper a fair interpretive reading.Sentences are choppy, incomplete, rambling, or awkward. Phrasing does not sound natural.No “sentence sense” present.Sentences begin the same way.Endless connectives.Does not invite expressive oral reading.
136+1 Trait® Writing Rubric Conventions Key Question: How much editing would have to be done to be ready to share with an outside source?A whole lot? Score in the 1– range.A moderate amount? Score in the 3 range.Very little? Score in the –5 range.Conventions: The mechanical correctness of the piece; spelling, grammar, and usage, paragraphing, use of capitals, and punctuation*The writer demonstrates a good grasp of standard writing conventions (e.g., spelling, punctuation, capitalization, grammar, usage, paragraphing)Spelling is generally correctPunctuation is accurateCapitalization skills are presentGrammar and usage are correctParagraphing tends to be soundThe writer may manipulate conventions for stylistic effect; and it works!The writer shows reasonable control over a limited range of standard writing conventionsSpelling is usually correct or reasonably phonetic on common wordsEnd punctuation is usually correctMost words are capitalized correctlyProblems with grammar and usage are not seriousParagraphing is attemptedModerate (a little of this, a little of that) editingErrors in spelling, punctuation, capitalization, usage and grammar, and/or paragraphing repeatedly distract the reader and make text difficult to readSpelling errors are frequentPunctuation missing or incorrectCapitalization is randomErrors in grammar or usage are very noticeableParagraphing is missingThe reader must read once to decode, then again for meaning* Grades 7 and Up Only: The writing is sufficiently complex to allow the writer to show skill in using a wide range of conventions
15Ten Strategies To Teach Writing 1. TEACH STUDENTS THE LANGUAGE they need to speak and think like writers.2. READ, SCORE, AND JUSTIFY your scores on anonymous sample papers.3. PRACTICE and rehearse focused REVISION strategies by:Working with a partner or small groupWorking on an anonymous sampleRevising for one trait at a time4. WRITE! Yes, WRITE—this means you! Write along with your students. Take a risk and share your “works in progress” with them. Ask them for revising feedback. You’ll be amazed!5. READ, READ, READ printed material of ALL kinds to illustrate strengths and weaknesses in writing.6. R.A.F.T.S. (Role Audience, Format, Topic, Strong Verbs)CRAFT thoughtful, explicit WRITING PROMPTSCONNECT what students know and are learning TO VARIOUS MODES of writing7. ACTIVITIES AND FOCUS LESSONSWEAVE focused trait SKILL LESSONS INTO YOUR CURRICULUM to enhance your writing program8. GOAL SETTING AND MONITORING PROGRESSTeach students to set writing goals and continuously monitor their progress9. CURRICULUM MAPPINGWhere do the Traits fit in your program?10. PROFESSIONAL LEARNING TEAM: A Proven Model for Effective Instructional Improvement
16Strategy 6— R.A.F.T.S. Writing Prompts RoleAudienceFormTopicStrong Verb for Purpose
17Designing R.A.F.T.S. Writing Assignments Effective writing assignments enable students to write fluently and purposefully for an audience. R.A.F.T.S. can help teachers identify and incorporate the elements of an effective writing assignment.Role of the writer—helps the writer decide on point of view and voiceAudience for the piece of writing—reminds the writer that he must communicate ideas to someone else; helps writer determine content and styleFormat of the material—helps the writer organize ideas and employ the conventions of format, such as letters, interviews and story problemsTopic or subject of the piece of writing—helps the writer focus on main ideasStrong verb—directs the writer to the writing purpose, e.g., persuade, analyze, create, predict, compare, defend, evaluate
18R.A.F.T.S. Classroom Prompts R—RoleA—AudienceF—FormatT—TopicS—Strong VerbEXAMPLE:You are Ulysses on your journey home from Troy after being(role)gone for over ten years. Write a letter to your wife Penelope(format) (audience)explaining why you won’t make it home for dinner, AGAIN.(strong verb) (topic)
19R.A.F.T.S. Writing Prompt Example Over the past few years, NASA has suffered a number of severe setbacks in its development of a viable manned space program. Persistent problems with the quality of equipment have caused the delay and even cancellation of some missions. And the tragic loss of two space shuttles and their crews has caused deep public concern about the safety of the organization’s procedures.These two circumstances have combined to create an atmosphere of distrust in the organization, and loss of confidence in the Congress that must approve the funds to keep the agency functioning.You are Carl Sagan, the cosmologist and writer. In a letter to the Chairman of the House Appropriations Committee, convince the Chairman that more funding needs to be provided for the manned exploration of space.
20R.A.F.T.S. CLASSROOM PROMPTS R—RoleA—AudienceF—FormatT—TopicS—Strong VerbWrite your own R.A.F.T.S. assignment here.
21Forms of Writing for Assignments (An incomplete listing) AdvertisementsAffidavitsAnalytical paragraphs/papersAnecdotes/storiesAnnouncementsApplicationsBibliography annotationsBiographical sketchesBlurbs: TV lists/book coversBoard games instructionsBrochuresBumper stickersCaptionsChildren’s BooksCommentariesComparison paragraphs/papersComputer programsConstitution articlesConsumer guide or reportContest entries (25 words)Contrast paragraphs/papersDebate outlines/notesDeclarationsDefinitionsDialoguesDictionary entriesDirections: guide to places, how-to, survival manualsEditorialsEncyclopedia entriesEnvironmental impact reportsEpitaphsEulogiesExpense accounts and defenseGraffitiGreeting card or textHistorical accountsImaginative Literature: Fairy tales, myths, novels, playsPoems: Villanelle, Haiku, SonnetsScience FictionShort storiesSongs & balladsStory beginningsIndexesInstructionsInternetInterviews (real/imaginary)IntroductionJob specificsJournal entries
22Forms of Writing for Assignments, continued (An incomplete listing) Lab reportsLast wills and testamentsLegal briefsLegislationLesson plansLetters: advice, application, resignation, informational, complaint, congratulation, from imaginary places, inquiryPersuasive: to public officials, to the editor, recommendationsListsMath notes/observationsMath problem solutionsMath record booksMath story problemsMemosMonologuesMottoesNews stories—paper/radio/TVOrationsPackage copyParaphrasesParodiesPersonalized license platePlacardsPrayersPrécisProphecies and predictionsProposalsPsychiatrists’ notesPublic noticesReaction papersRequestsResponses and rebuttalsRésumésReviews: movies, outside reading, radio/TV programsScreenplaysSermonsShip’s logsSkitsSideshow scriptsSlogansSpecifications for reportsSpeeches: expository speeches, nominating speechesStoryboards for animationSummariesTables of contentsTelegramsTelephone dialoguesTest questionsThumbnail sketches: content idea, famous people, historical events, placesUmpire reportsUndercover reportsWanted postersWar communiquésWord puzzles and games
23Strong Verbs for R.A.F.T.S. Assignments Descriptive WritingIlluminateDistinguishDefineClarifyElucidateIdentifyTraceInterpretPortrayNarrative WritingRelateTellReflectNarrateRecountReportRecapitulateReviewReciteImaginative WritingInventFabricateContriveImagineCreateFantasizeDevise
24Strong Verbs for R.A.F.T.S. Assignments Expository WritingExplainCompareContrastInformSummarizeAnnounceDelineateRecordExemplifyRevealNotifyStateEvidencePersuasive WritingPersuadeConvinceContestUrgeArgueEncourageCajoleAdvocateInduceEntreatReasonPrevailInfluenceProve
256+1 Trait® Writing Teacher’s Planning Chart IDEASIDENTIFY THE OBJECTIVES from the key words in the rubric.PLAN the following......Read alouds: Examples of trait from many sourcesMinilessons: Modeling, practice activities, score papersWriting Skill Practice: Practice as part of team or groupEvaluation: Students work on this trait in their own writingObjectiveRead AloudsMinilessonsWriting Skill PracticeEvaluationNarrow, manageable topicPink and Say by Patricia Polacco—discuss themeRead writing sample, “Earth” score/justify for Ideas traitIn a team, choose one idea from “Earth” and write a focused paragraphWrite a persona journal response to an idea of Pink and SayRelevant, quality detailsPink and Say quickwrite an idea that resonates with youExample of ‘show and tell’ from focus lessonsIn pairs choose a topic to ‘show not tell’ and write a two paragraph pieceUse your idea from quickwrite to write a three paragraph responseFresh, original ideas, personal knowledge or experience; insightsReader’s questions are anticipated and answeredDesigned by Roberta Young, 2002, Modified by Peter Bellamy, 2004
266+1 Trait® Writing Teacher’s Planning Chart ORGANIZATIONIDENTIFY THE OBJECTIVES from the key words in the rubric.PLAN the following......Read alouds: Examples of trait from many sourcesMinilessons: Modeling, practice activities, focused journal topicsSample papers: Score and revise papers for trait (group write?)Revision: Students work on this trait in their own writingObjectiveRead AloudsMinilessonsWriting Skill PracticeEvaluationInviting introduction; Satisfying conclusionThoughtful transitionsPacing is evidentFlows smoothly; matches audience and puropseDesigned by Roberta Young, 2002, Modified by Peter Bellamy, 2004
27ADVANTAGES OF ANALYTIC SCORING Offers a broad perspectiveChallenges us to think of writing in new waysGives us a model for responding to student’s writingProvides vocabulary for talking with students about writingProvides a solid foundation for revision and editingAllows students to become evaluators
28Experimental StudyWill training in 6+1 Trait® Writing affect teacher practice?Will training in 6+1 Trait® Writing affect student performance in writing?Conducted during 2003–2004 school year
29Sample 76 classrooms (Grades 3 to 6) One school district Complete data for 1,592 students in 72 classrooms
30Design2x2 model with two experimental conditions (treatment and control) and two test times; applied independently at four grade levelsRandom assignment of classrooms to treatment and control groups; stratified by gradeTreatment: two-day workshop on 6+1 Trait® Writing in November
31Data CollectionPretest: student writing sample collected prior to trainingPosttest: student writing sample collected following six months of implementationClassroom observations and teacher surveys (administered at the time of the posttest)
32Writing PromptsGrades 3 & 4: narrative and descriptive (prompts were randomly assigned for the pretest; students were assigned the other mode for posttest)Grades 5 & 6: narrative and persuasive
33ScoringAll writing samples were scored using a six-point holistic rubric, and six five-point analytic rubrics (six traits)Each sample was scored by four raters, who did not know if samples were from the pretest or posttest or from the treatment or control group
34ResultsNo significant differences in student scores between treatment and control groups at any grade
35Pretest to Posttest Differences Holistic Writing Scores
36Pretest to Posttest Differences Holistic Writing Scores
37Treatment by Test Time Interaction (All Grade Levels)
39Results for Teacher Survey (Treatment Group) Approximately 90% of teachers reported “a great deal” or “a moderate amount” of specific instruction on the ideas, organization, and conventionsApproximately 80% of teachers reported “a great deal” or “a moderate amount” of specific instruction on the word choice and sentence fluency
40Results for Teacher Survey (Treatment Group) 80% to 90% of teachers agreed that the training:Improved their understanding of the qualities of good writingHelped them to improve their writing instructionImproved their ability to provide effective feedback to students53% agreed that students could use the traits effectively for self-assessment
41Treatment-Control Comparisons More teachers in treatment group reported “very frequent” use of:Rubrics to explain what is expectedSamples of excellent student writingStudents discussing specific features of their writing
42Treatment-Control Comparisons More teachers in the control group reported “a great deal of specific instruction” in:generating rich ideas and contentorganizing content effectivelyusing effective languageconnecting with the readerusing conventions correctly
43Limitations Amount of training Length of time for implementation Treatment and control teachers in the same school
44Dr. Michael Kozlow Contact Assessment Program Director Northwest Regional Educational LaboratoryCopies of this presentation and the paper can be found at: