Presentation on theme: "Reading in the Secondary Classroom Presented by Shelly Smede"— Presentation transcript:
1 Reading in the Secondary Classroom Presented by Shelly Smede Reading NextReading in the Secondary ClassroomPresented by Shelly Smede
2 Tips for Teachers Presenting to Other Teachers If you are nervous, add some humor. These jokes will help ease the tension - even if you're the only one who thinks you’re funny.Use the phrase "new paradigm" as often as you can - it will add value to whatever you are presenting.Many teachers will sit in your session just long enough to get the handouts and then they will leave. Don't play into this little game. Always lock the door before you distribute any handouts.
3 Tips for Teachers Presenting to Other Teachers Some cynic will always accuse you of being too much of an idealist and not enough of a realist. Tell this person that ideally, no one would say such a thing during someone else's presentation, but that realistically you figured someone would.Your level of expertise is in direct relation to the distance you are from your school. Tell those attending your session that you are from The Mid-Antarctic Consolidated School District.
4 Lexiles LiLI Reading Next Crayola Curriculum Five Fingers: I could teach this. Four Fingers: I know a lot about this. Three Fingers: I have heard of this. Two Fingers: This is new to me.LexilesLiLIReading NextCrayola CurriculumNew Idaho State Reading StandardsLogographic CuesGraphic Organizers
5 Findings in ReadingTeaching of formal reading instruction tends to end after elementary school.80% of elementary text is fiction.80% of secondary text is nonfiction.Students must be trained in the literacy of each subject field.About 70% of adolescents need some type of remediation.
6 Findings in Reading50% of students read fewer than four minutes a day.30% read two minutes or fewer per day.10% do not spend any time reading.83% of faculty say that the lack of analytical reading skills contributes to students’ lack of success in a course.
7 Findings in ReadingThe current and future job market requires workers who are highly literate, which means they can read with comprehension, assess and interpret information, and utilize it appropriately.The Principal’s Partnership
8 Findings in Reading“Based on 2005 ACT-tested high school graduates, it appears that only about half of our nation’s ACT-tested high school students are ready for college-level reading.”ACT College Readiness Executive Summary
9 Mike Schmoker Research Results Now, 2006 In lowest achieving schools, most of the class period was spent on activities such as drawing or coloring or filling in worksheets that had no connection to learning outcomes.Student work was handed in, but rarely returned.In all schools, poor or affluent, students were rarely, if ever, reading. (86)
10 The Crayola Curriculum What was the single most predominant activity in the schools observed, right up through middle school?Coloring, Cutting, and Pasting
11 Literature Based Arts & Crafts Instead of reading and writing, students were found to spend most of their day making…DioramasGame boardsPostersMobilesBookmarksBook jacketsCoats of Arms…
12 Reading Next Recommendations (Carnegie Foundation, 2004; NCTE, 2006) Direct, explicit comprehension instructionEffective instructional principles embedded in contentMotivation and self-directed learning
14 Reading Next Recommendations (Carnegie Foundation, 2004; NCTE, 2006) A technology componentOngoing formative assessment of studentsExtended time for literacyProfessional development
15 Reading Next Recommendations (Carnegie Foundation, 2004; NCTE, 2006) Ongoing summative assessment of students and programsTeacher teamsLeadershipA comprehensive and coordinated literacy program
16 A College Prep Curriculum Classes that spend their time (bell to bell) reading, writing, and talking result in…A College Prep Curriculum
17 Reading Levels Independent Level of Reading: 95% word recognition; 90% comprehension without teacher assistanceInstructional Level of Reading:90% word recognition; 75% comprehensionFrustration Level of Reading:Students recognize fewer than 90% of words and comprehend less than 50%At this level, students are too frustrated by the text to learn from it.(Beers, 2003, pg. 205)
18 How long would you keep reading? Scientists use models to refer to a d____ or d____ of something, s____ one which can be used to make ____ that can be tested by ____ or ___. A h___ is a c___ that has been neither well supported nor yet ruled out by e___. A theory, in the context of science, is a l___ self-c___ model or f___ for d___ the b___ of certain n___ p___. A theory t___ d___ the b___ of much broader sets of p___ than a h___ — c___, a large number of h___ may be l___bound together by a single theory. A p___ law or law of nature is a s___ g___ based on a s___ large number of e___ o___ that it is taken as fully v___.
19 Relationship between Time Spent Reading and Reading Achievement Fifth-Grade StudentsPercentile RankMinutes of Text Reading per DayEstimated Number of Words Read per Year98907050201090.740.421.7184.108.40.206,733,0002,357,0001,168,000601,000134,00051,000from Anderson et al., 1988, Table 3, N = 155.
20 Reading in the Workplace Data: National Adult Literacy Study (1992)Job Level151413121110987654321700900110013001500•laborserviceconstructioncraftsmanclerkforemansecretarysalessupervisornurseexecutiveteacheraccountantscientistReader Ability in Lexiles
21 Our Greatest Opportunity Literacy Instruction“Underdeveloped literacy skills are the number one reason why students are retained, assigned to special education, given long term remedial services and why they fail to graduate from high school.”Ferrandino and Tirozzi, Presidents of NAESP and NASSP
22 Lexiles and Newspapers USA Today (1200L)Chicago Tribune (1310L)The Associated Press (1310L)Wall Street Journal (1320L)The Washington Post (1350L)New York Times (1380L)Reuters (1440L)NOTES:HOW CAN WE MEASURE THE READING DEMANS OF CITIZENSHIP?A FEDERAL JUDGE PROPOSED THAT VOTING BOOTH TEXTS AND INSTUCTIONS TO JURIED BE THE TEXT STANDARD.WE ARGUE THAT A MORE FAMILIAR STANDRD MIGHT BE A NEWSPAPER. THERE IS A MYTH THAT NEWSPAPERS REQUIRE A SIXTH-GRADE READING ABILITY – NOT TRUE – 1200L – 1400LSource: Dr. William R. Daggett, CCSSO Summer Institute Presentation, July 2003
23 Lifelong Reading CD-DVD Player Instructions (1080L) Microsoft Windows User Manual (1150L)GM Protection Plan (1150L)Installing Your Child Safety Seat (1170L)Federal Tax Form W-4 (1260L)Application for a student loan (1270L)Medical Insurance Benefits Pkg. (1280L)Aetna Health Care Discount Form (1360L)NOTES:DR. BILL DAGGETT, INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION, STUDIED 16 JOB CLUSTERSSURPRISING FINDINGS:READING DEMANDS OF BLUE-COLLAR JOBS ARE ALMOST AS HIGH AS WHITE-COLLARENTRY-LEVEL POSITIONS IN MANY JOB CLUSTERS ARE AS HIGH AS ADVANCED POSITIONSREADING IN THE WORKPLACE IS BECOMING EVEN MORE IMPORTANT THAN IT WAS BEFORE COMPUTERS!WORKPLACE REQUIRES 1100L TO 1400L ABILITY!Source: Dr. William R. Daggett, CCSSO Summer Institute Presentation, July 2003
24 Three Key Concepts Reader Ability Text Readability the cognitive set students use to construct meaning from text as measured on testsText Readabilitythe difficulty of reading materials based on dimensions or characteristics of the textForecasted Comprehension Ratethe construction of meaning from local text
25 Determining text difficulty Syntactic Complexitythe number of words per sentencelonger sentences require more short-term memory to processSemantic DifficultyCommon words create lower Lexile; more obscure words increase Lexile score.
26 Reading Levels“When students must read certain texts that you know will cause word recognition problems (frustration level of reading), then accept that you won’t be improving word recognition with that text.”(Beers, 2003, pg. 242)
28 Standard 1: Reading Process Analyze the structure and format of various informational documents.Identify the text characteristics of different genres of literature.Apply knowledge of roots and word parts to draw inferences about new words.Use context analysis to determine the meanings of unfamiliar words.
29 Standard 2: Comprehension/Interpretation Synthesize the content from several sources on a single issue; compare and contrast ideas to demonstrate comprehension.Apply reading strategies to self monitor for comprehension.Clarify an understanding of text by creating outlines, notes, annotations, charts, and/or diagrams.Critique the logic of informational texts by examining the sequence of information and procedures.
30 Standard 2: Comprehension/Interpretation Define the purpose and audience of a variety of communication formats (e.g., essays, letters, user manuals, lab reports, websites).Evaluate the comprehensiveness and validity of evidence in an author’s argument.Read and respond to literature from a variety of genres.Analyze characters’ traits by what the characters say about themselves in narration, dialogue, and soliloquy.
31 Standard 2: Comprehension/Interpretation Explain the author’s point of view and interpret how it influences the text.Compare works that express a universal theme and provide evidence to support the views expressed in each work.Analyze ways in which authors use imagery, figures of speech, and the “sound” of language for effect.Compare and contrast authors’ styles on the basis of such elements as word choice and sentence syntax.
33 Standard 2: Comprehension/Interpretation Determine the relationships among facts, ideas, and events used in various texts to support a central purpose.Distinguish cause and effect relationships in text to gain meaning.Make inferences, draw conclusions, and form opinions based on information gathered from text and cite evidence to support.
34 Standard 2: Comprehension/Interpretation Evaluate expository text structure to extend comprehension.Generate how, why, and what-if questions for interpreting expository texts.Apply central ideas (literal of inferential) and critical details to summarize information from expository text.Identify the main purpose and anticipate outcomes of procedures specified in informational text.
37 69% of Idaho state reading objectives for tenth grade are those that should be utilized and learned across the curriculum.
38 InferencesAn inference is the ability to connect what is in the text with what is in the mind to make an educated guess.
39 Read the following passage and discuss what you think is happening. “He put down $10 at the window. The woman behind the window gave $4.00. The person next to him gave him $3.00, but he gave it back to her. So, when they went inside, she bought him a large bag of popcorn.”(Beers, 2003 pp )
40 Step Inside a Classroom Teacher: What can you tell me about this passage?S1: This doesn’t make any sense.S2: It sort of does, down here, with the popcorn. Maybe it’s about a movie.S3: It doesn’t say anything about a movie.S1: I don’t get it.S3: This is stupid.
41 What’s Happening?“These students don’t understand that reading requires action on their part…. They expect the text to provide everything. Their job, they believe, is at most to decode the print. After that, well, if the meaning isn’t immediately apparent, they stop reading or ask us to explain.”(Beers, 2003, pg. 69)
43 Does purpose setting matter? Pink: Memorize the following words.Yellow: Count the vowels in the following words.Blue: Rate each of the following words on its level of pleasantness, with 1 being “least pleasant” and 5 being “most pleasant.If asked at the end of today’s workshop, only 50% of the memorizers would remember the words
44 Activating Prior Knowledge “Laundry”“The procedure is really quite simple. First you arrange things into different groups depending on their makeup. Of course, one pile may be sufficient depending on how much there is to do. If you have to go somewhere else due to lack of facilities that is the next step; otherwise you’re pretty well set. It’s important not to overdo any particular endeavor. It is better to do too few things than to do too many….”Bransford & Johnson (1972, JVLVB)
45 Independent Readers… Look at the… Graphs Cover Charts Art Length Title GenreAuthorHeadingsGraphsChartsLengthPrint sizeFront flapsBack cover…
46 Dependent Readers……are told to read something…and once the text is in their hands, they just begin.They skip titles and background information.They rarely look through the text for clues.The assignment is to read, so they’ll read—maybe (Beers, 2003, pg. 74).
47 Strategies Anticipation Guides Present students with pertinent issues that are worth discussing but that don’t have clear-cut answers.Anticipation guides first act as a pre-reading strategy and encourage making predictions. They allow students to look for cause/effect relationships. They also allow students to generalize and explore their responses to texts.
48 Anticipation Guide Before Reading After Reading 1. TV viewing is a major cause of health problems.Agree/Disagree? Agree/Disagree?2. TV should supply pleasure rather than moralize.3. Television is more beneficial than harmful.
49 Probable Passage See Next Slide for Example Brief summary based on key words from the textArrange words in categoriesWrite prediction statement that offers a gist of what the selection might be about.
50 College Homework Anxiety-ridden Sardonic Obsessed Young Latinos Bellwether Wal-MartMiddle School Barbie Misgivings teensNannies American Family PTA Meetings PrejudiceTitle: “Barbie to Baby Einstein: Get Over It”Characters:Setting:Problem:Gist Statement:Outcomes:Unknown Words:To discover:
51 Tea Party loathsome fire ants metamorphosis takes place inside eradicatedefend their nestsphorid fly implants one eggwon’t attack other species80% reductionflies were releasedinside the ant’s head
53 Say Something! (Beers, 2003, pg. 106) With a partner, decide who will say something firstWhen you say something, do one or more of the followingMake a predictionAsk a questionClarify a misunderstandingMake a commentMake a connectionIf you can’t do one of these things, then you need to reread.
54 Make a prediction I predict that… I bet that… I think that… Since this happened (fill in detail), then I bet the next thing to happen is…Reading this part makes me think that this (fill in detail) is about to happen.I wonder if…
55 Ask a Question Why did… What’s this part about… How is this (fill in detail) like this (fill in detail)…What would happen if…Why…Who is…Do you think that…
56 Clarify Something Oh, I get it… Now I understand… This makes sense now…No, I think it means…I agree with you. This means…At first I thought (fill in detail), but now I think…This part is really saying…
57 Make a Comment This is good because… This is hard because… This is confusing because…I like the part where…I don’t like this part because…My favorite part so far is…I think that…
58 Make a Connection This reminds me of… This part is like… This character (fill in name) is like (fill in name) because…This is similar to…The differences are…This setting reminds me of…
59 Say Something! (Beers, 2003, pg. 106) If you can’t do one of these things, then you need to reread.
60 Rereading Prove to students that rereading is valuable Model your thinking as you reread a textGive students specific tasks as they rereadReview what happened as students reread.
61 Logographic Cues ∆ A - Change in Action ∆ T - Change in Time ∆ F - Change in Focus∆ T/M - Change in Tone or Mood∆ S - Change in Setting∆ POV - Change in Point of View∆ D - Change in Direction∆ C/S - Change in Condition or StatusJim Burke, Tools for Thought (6)
63 Two-Column Notes Big Topic (Green) Main Point Examples, Facts, Details
64 Q NotesTurn chap. titles & sub-headings into questions in this column:Answer questions here using bullets and dashes to organize ideas:
65 Chapter 11: “Focus on Literacy in Every Subject” Chapter 11 Subheadings“Don’t Know Much About Biology”“Project Pain”“Adding and Subtracting Our Way to Literacy”From Reading Doesn’t Matter Anymore by David Booth
66 Reporter’s Notes (Burke, 2002) WHO (is involved or affected)Most important WHOWHAT (happened)Most important WHATWHERE (did it or will it happen)Most important WHEREWHEN (did it or will it happen)Most important WHENHOW (did they do it or did others respond)Most important HOWWHY (did they do this, react this way)Most important WHYSO WHAT? (why is this event/info/ idea important?)Most important SO WHAT?
70 Somebody Wanted But So (character). (motivation) Somebody Wanted But So (character) (motivation) (conflict) (resolution)RachelRachel’s TeacherTo feel 11 on her birthdayto return the sweater to its rightful ownerShe is humiliated when her teacher forces an old sweater on her.she doesn’t know who owns itShe feels helpless as she bursts into tears at her desk.she mistakenly makes Rachel take it and even put it on.
71 Question It Says I Say And So 3. Think about what you know about that information.4. Combine what the text says with what you know to come up with the answer.1. Read the Question.2. Find information from the text that will help you answer the question.
72 Question It Says I Say And So 3. Sometimes when I am really surprised or unhappy, I can’t think of anything to say to help change the situation.4. I think that Rachel wasn’t prepared to have her teacher treat her like this on her birthday. So when it does, she doesn’t have the words to protest.Why doesn’t Rachel just tell her teacher the sweater isn’t hers?2. In the story, she says that when she opens her mouth to say the sweater isn’t hers, that nothing comes out.This is an easy formula for making inferences!
78 Vocabulary Casserole (Beers, 2003) Ingredients Needed20 words no one has ever heard of before1 dictionary with confusing definitions in it1 matching test to be distributed on Friday1 teacher who just wants students quiet on Monday copying words.Mix 20 words onto blackboard. Have students copy each word and then look them up in the dictionary. Make students copy all the definitions. For a little spice, require that students use words in sentences. Leave along all week. Top with a boring Friday test. (Perishable. This casserole will be forgotten by Saturday afternoon.)Serves: No one.
79 Vocabulary Treat (Beers, 2003) Ingredients Needed5-10 great words that you really could use1 thesaurus1 game like Jeopardy or Bingo1 teacher who thinks learning can be fun.Mix 5-10 words into the classroom. Have students test each word for flavor. Toss with a thesaurus tofind other words that mean the same thing. Let us draw quick graphics to help us remember what they mean. Stir often all week by a teacher who thinks learning can be fun. Top with a cool game on Friday like Jeopardy or bingo to see who remembers the most.Serves: Many
80 A Six-Step Process for Teaching Vocabulary Step 1: Provide a description, explanation, or example of the new term.Step 2: Ask students to restate the description, explanation, or example in their own words.Step 3: Ask students to construct a picture, symbol, or graphic representing the term or phrase.Step 4: Engage students periodically in activities that help them add to their knowledge of the terms in their notebooks.Step 5: Periodically ask students to discuss the terms with one another.Step 6: Involve students periodically in games that allow them to play with terms.
81 Student Vocab Organizer (Marzano, Building Background Knowledge) Term: My UnderstandingCategory:___________________________________________Describe:____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Draw:
82 Student Vocab Organizer (Maureen Auman, Step Up to Writing) Vocabulary Study Guide IWordDefinitionSignificanceExample: TenementsLarge buildingsHouse many peopleTenements were built in cities like New York. They were over-crowded, noisy, and had poor ventilation; sometimes called slums
83 Student Vocab Organizer (Maureen Auman, Step Up to Writing) Vocabulary Study Guide IIWordIs NotUserather; in fact; instead; howeverThat, which, who, whose, whomA tenementis not a fancy place to live;in fact,it is an over-crowded building that is often too cold or too hot and is frequently unsafe. Few people would choose to live in tenement housing.
84 Student Vocab Organizer (Kylene Beers, 2003) Word Scroll:What it is NOT…What it is…VocabularyWord& DefinitionWhat it is NOT…What it is…ExampleExampleExampleExamplePractice Sentence: _______________________________________.
86 Stages of Literary Appreciation (Carlsen, 1954) Stage 1: Plot (grades 3-7)Students are absorbed in plot and like to tell you which parts they like best.Stage 2: Characters (grades 7-9)Students begin to live vicariously through characters’ lives sharing their triumphs or failures.Stage 3: Literary Conflict (grade 9)Students read books that mirror or reflect their own concerns.
87 Stages of Literary Appreciation (Carlsen, 1954) Stage 4: Students value theme (junior year)Students hunt for books that allow them to ponder life’s bigger issues such as right & wrong, forgiveness, love, hate, envy, selflessness….Stage 5: Students value literary devices (often not ever seen, but usually not seen before the college years)Students read to enjoy the expression of the words.
88 Give Students the Smart Words Words to Describe the PlotPositive NegativeRealistic unrealisticGood pacing ploddingSuspenseful PredictableSatisfying ending Frustrating endingSubplots connected well Confusing subplotsWell-developed ideas Sketchy ideas
89 Give Students the Smart Words Words to Describe CharactersPositive NegativeOriginal StereotypedBelievable UnbelievableWell-rounded FlatMulti-dimensional Static/stays sameWell-developed Flawed
90 Give Students the Smart Words Words to Describe the ThemePositive NegativeImportant Message Unimportant messageSubtle OverbearingUnique OverworkedPowerful IneffectiveMemorable Forgettable
91 Give Students the Smart Words Words to Describe Author’s StylePositive NegativeDescriptive/use of metaphors Boring, no imageryOriginal Filled with clichésLively, full of action Slow-movingPoetic or lyrical Clodding, jumpy
92 “Becoming a reader shapes who we are, how we see the world, and how we see ourselves in the world. Tragically, failure to become a reader shapes our perceptions as well.”Kylene Beers, 2003