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Transcription and Translation

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Presentation on theme: "Transcription and Translation"— Presentation transcript:

1 Transcription and Translation
Protein Synthesis Transcription and Translation

2 Protein Synthesis Is the formation of the proteins using information coded on DNA and carried out by RNA STEP 1 RNA Transcription STEP RNA Translation DNA RNA Proteins

3 Protein Each protein molecule is made up of one or more polypeptides.
Each polypeptide is made up of a sequence of amino acids. There are 20 different types of Amino Acids. Amino Acids Polypeptides Proteins

4 Genetic Code System that contains information needed for proper cell functioning. This information is built into the arrangement of nitrogen bases.

5 Codon A specific group of three sequential bases on mRNA.
Each codon codes for a specific amino acid. There are 64 possible codons. Coding for amino acids is universal for all animals. See Codon chart on Page 207 What does the following mRNA code for? AUG UUU CCU CAA GGU GAG GCG ACA UAA

6 Transcription First step in protein synthesis Occurs in the nucleus
End result is RNA molecule with a complementary base sequence to DNA. Flow of Genetic Information DNA RNA

Enzyme called RNA Polymerase binds to DNA molecule at the promoter Promoter is a sequence of nucleotides on a DNA molecule where transcription will begin Once RNA polymerase binds to the DNA molecule it will unwind and separate the two complementary DNA strands.

RNA polymerase adds free RNA nucleotides that are complementary to the nucleotides on one of the DNA strands. They will attach by hydrogen bonds and form a strand on messenger RNA. RNA polymerase will also establish the sugar to phosphate bonds between the nucleotides in the new mRNA strand. As the RNA Polymerase passes the separated DNA strands rewind.

The enzyme will reach a pattern of bases on the DNA strand that signals termination. The enzyme will stop and release the new RNA strand. The new RNA strand now moves to the cytoplasm

10 End Result of Transcription
Transcription just created a RNA molecule with a complementary base sequence to DNA. Each type of RNA molecule (tRNA, mRNA, rRNA) is made this way and will start their job in protein synthesis.

Transcribe a mRNA molecule from the following DNA Strands. DNA: TAC ATA TAA CGC CCG AGC TGC GGC

12 Warm Up: Today: AGG TTA GGC CCG ATA AGC GCG GGC Homework:
Transcribe a mRNA molecule from the following DNA Strands. AGG TTA GGC CCG ATA AGC GCG GGC Today: Homework:

13 TRANSLATION The process of assembling protein molecules from information encoded in mRNA. Second Step in Protein Synthesis This process uses all three types of RNA Process occurs in the cytoplasm

14 Transfer RNA (tRNA) Transfer RNA (tRNA) bears a sequence of three bases called the Anticodon. The anticodon base sequence is complimentary to the codon on the mRNA tRNA carries an amino acid to the ribosome's mRNA and tRNA will pair together during translation.

15 Translation- STEP 1 INITIATION
Process starts when mRNA migrates out of nucleus by nuclear pores, and migrates to the ribosome's. Amino acids floating freely in the cytoplasm are transported to the ribosome's by the tRNA

The assembly of polypeptides start when the ribosome's attaches to the AUG(start) codon of the mRNA The AUG codon pairs with the anticodon UAC on a specific tRNA Methionine is usually the first amino acid (not always the first in the amino acid chain because it may be removed)

17 STEP 2 & 3 ELONGATION The Polypeptide chain is put together.
Ribosome's moves along the chain and decodes the mRNA and attaches the amino acids together by peptide bonds. The tRNA will bring in the next amino acid, pair up with the codon on the mRNA and attach the next amino acid together

18 STEP 4 TERMINATION Eventually the ribosome reaches a stop codon and the process comes to the end The new polypeptide is complete and released. Ribosome's may be working at different parts of the mRNA simultaneously.

19 STEP 5 DISASSEMBLY The components of translation separate.
The last tRNA leaves. The Ribosome leaves the mRNA The translation machinery are now ready to translate another mRNA

20 Translation Practice DNA: TAC ATA TAA CGC CCG AGC TGC GGC mRNA:
Amino Acid Chain:

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