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Chapter 17: Classification

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1 Chapter 17: Classification

2 Biodiversity The variety of organisms considered at all levels from populations to ecosystems

3 Taxonomy – science of describing, naming, and classifying organisms
Taxon – particular group within a taxonomic system

4 Criteria for classification
Cellular structure prokaryote vs. eukaryote Methods of obtaining nutrients autotroph vs. heterotroph Metabolism aerobic vs. anaerobic Comparative anatomy homologous structures Embryologic development similar development stages Biochemistry protein structures, base sequencing of the nucleic acids, and types of nucleic acids

5 Carolus Linnaeus – created original system of classification in the mid 1700s
Domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species Do kings play chess on fuzzy green stools?

6 Scientific Name - Binomial nomenclature: two-part name
1) Genus (capitilized, italicized) 2) species (lowercase, italicized) same in all countries, unlike common name Latin Ex: scientific name - Panthera tigris common name – tiger

7 THREE DOMAINS 1) Bacteria – small, single celled prokaryotic organisms
2) Archaea – prokaryotes. Distinctive cell membranes. Some are autotrophic, or can use chemosythesis to produce food. 3) Eukarya – large, true nucleus, complex cellular organelles. Includes plants, animals, fungi, and some single-celled organisms

8 SIX KINGDOMS 1) Eubacteria 2) Archaebacteria 3) Protista 4) Fungi
5) Plantae 6) Animalia

9 1. Archaebacteria Prokaryotes Unicellular
may be chemosynthesizers or heterotrophs ex. Acidophiles or methanogens

10 2. Eubacteria Prokaryotes unicellular
most heterotrophic but some are autotrophic ex. E. Coli

11 3. Protista Eukaryotes most unicellular, some simple multicellular
heterotrophic and autotrophic ex. Algae, ameoba

12 4. Fungi Eukaryotes most multicellular heterotrophic ex. Mushrooms

13 5. Plantae Eukaryotes Multicellular Autotrophic Cell specialization
ex. Ferns, trees, mosses

14 6. Animalia Eukaryotes Multicellular Heterotrophic Most are motile
ex. Whales, insects, birds, etc…

15 Zorse

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