Presentation on theme: "First Aid First aid is the immediate and temporary care given to a person who has been injured or becomes suddenly ill. It is important to keep first aid."— Presentation transcript:
First Aid First aid is the immediate and temporary care given to a person who has been injured or becomes suddenly ill. It is important to keep first aid kits where they might be needed. Where would be your top choices to keep one? Kitchen Motor vehicle With your camping/outdoor gear
First Aid (cont.) Your local drug store probably sells complete first aid kits as well as all of the individual components. Make sure that your first aid kit includes universal precautions- a series of steps taken to prevent the spread of disease. Universal precautions typically include latex or vinyl gloves, a face mask, and eye shield, along with directions on how to clean up a blood spill. In medical facilities, scrubs may be worn to protect the skin against accidental blood spattering.
First Aid (cont.) You must have consent to give a person first aid. Actual consent is oral or written permission from a mentally competent person. Tell the person who you are, that you have had first aid training, and most importantly, what you would like to do to help. If you are babysitting, you could perform first aid with the parent or guardians permission. This is actual consent.
First Aid (cont.) Implied consent is unspoken understanding that first aid may be given if no one who can give actual consent is conscious or present. So this would include an adult who is unconscious (if nobody else was around), a mentally incompetent person (if no adult who could grant consent was present), or a child or infant (if no parent or gurdian is present).
First Aid (cont.) Good Samaritan laws are laws that protect people who give first aid in good faith and without gross negligence or misconduct. Lawsuits usually do not occur if a person giving first aid has the skills to do so. Lawsuits do occur, however, when a minor injury is made worse because of the first aid given. Good Samaritan laws cannot protect you if you are negligent.
Know Your A-B-Cs A stands for airway. Place victim on back (as long as no neck or spinal injuries are involved). Using the head tilt-chin lift method, open the airway. B stands for breathing. Check for breathing for 10 seconds (look, listen, and feel for breath). If not breathing, immediately give 2 rescue breaths. If chest does not rise, airway may be obstructed, re- position head using head tilt-chin lift method. Then give 2 additional rescue breaths. If these breaths do not go in, treat for airway obstruction.
Know Your A-B-Cs (cont.) C stands for circulation. Check pulse for seconds. If no pulse, begin CPR (discussed later). Control severe bleeding as this is a life-threatening condition.
Treating Airway Obstructions If the victim is conscious, you use the Heimlich maneuver. Forming a T behind the person (to absorb their weight if they become unconscious), place flat part of closed fist just above the victims navel. Grab fist with other hand. Give a series of (5-10) short, quick, upward thrusts. Start with gradual pressure and increase as needed. Stay with victim. Watch for breathing difficulties that might require rescue breathing.
Treating Airway Obstructions (cont.) If the victim is unconscious, place them on their back on a flat surface. Straddle the persons legs and place the palm on your dominant hand just above the persons navel. Place the other hand on top and give short, quick abdominal thrusts. Do a visual check of the victims mouth and a finger sweep if necessary. If victim is not breathing, continue cycles of 5-10 abdominal thrusts, check of victims mouth and finger sweep until airway is clear and person resumes breathing.
Rescue Breathing Use a face mask or shield if one is available. They only cost a few dollars ($4-5) from the American Red Cross. A person can only survive for a few minutes without oxygen. Rescue breathing is a way of breathing air into an unconscious person who is not breathing. Use universal precautions if available.
Rescue Breathing (cont.) Roll the victim on his or her back. Use the head tilt-chin lift method to open the airway. The hand on the victims forehead also pinches the nostrils shut. If not using a mask or shield, you will have to form a tight seal with your lips around the victims lips. Give two slow breaths. Watch to see if the victims chest slowly rises. Check pulse.
Rescue Breathing (cont.) Give 1 slow breath every: 5 seconds for an adult 4 seconds for a child 3 seconds for an infant Remove your mouth after each breath so the victim can exhale.
CPR CPR stands for cardiopulmonary resuscitation. It is a technique used to temporarily resume heartbeat and breathing for an unconscious victim who has no pulse. CPR is an advanced first aid skill. For this reason, people who give CPR should have formal training from the American Red Cross or the American Heart Association.
CPR (cont.) CPR involves giving chest compressions and rescue breaths in a certain ratio, depending on the age of the victim. CPR may be exhausting, but is performed until: Another trained rescuer takes over. Emergency help arrives. The person begins to breath on their own.
First Aid For Bleeding For minor bleeding, clean the wound [to prevent infections], apply an antibiotic ointment, and place a bandage over the wound. For heavy bleeding, the main focus is on stopping the bleeding. Use a sterile barrier (if available) and use pressure to keep it firmly in place. Add another barrier if blood soaks through. Use tape to hold the bandage over the sterile barrier. Elevate the wounded body part above the level of the heart.
First Aid For Poisoning Some signs of poisoning include difficulty breathing, nausea, vomiting, chest and/or abdominal pain, sweating, and seizures. Skin rashes and burns on the lips or tongue might also indicate poisoning. If you suspect someone has been poisoned: 1.Be cautious- protect your health & safety. 2.Move the victim to a safe location if necessary.
First Aid For Poisoning (cont.) 3. Follow your A-B-Cs. 4. Gather information about the poisoning for the Poison Control Center or You might be advised to induce vomiting, buffer the poison with water or milk, or asked to administer medicine. Syrup of ipecac is a drug used to induce vomiting; activated charcoal is a drug that is administered after the person vomits. These two drugs should be found in every home, just for this purpose.
Burns A burn is an injury caused by heat, electricity, chemicals, or radiation. The seriousness of the burn depends on: The cause of the burn. The length of time the victim was exposed to the source of the burn. The location of the burn on the body. The size of the burn. The depth of the burn. The victims age and health condition.
Classifications Of Burns 1 st degree= Minor burn affecting top layer of skin. They usually heal is a few days without scarring. 2 nd degree= More serious burn involving the top layers of skin; blisters may form; usually heal in 2-4 weeks; scarring may occur. 3 rd degree= Major burn involving all layers of the skin and some underlying tissues. The skin may appear dark and charred. The underlying tissues might appear white. Permanent scarring often occurs. Some victims require skin grafting and/or plastic surgery.
Treatment For Burns 1 st degree- Cool the burned area with water or ice ASAP. Loosely bandage the area with a dry, sterile dressing. 2 nd degree- Cool the burned area with cool water or cold cloths. Cover the area with a dry, sterile dressing. Elevate the burned area. Do not break blisters or remove tissue.
Treatment For Burns (cont.) 3 rd degree- Check A-B-Cs. Do not break blisters or remove tissue. Do not apply cold. Cover the burned area with a dry, sterile dressing, clean cloth or sheet. Get medical help immediately.
Treatment For Heat Exhaustion Heat exhaustion is extreme tiredness due to the inability of body temperature to be regulated. Signs include cool, moist, pale, or red skin; nausea; headache; dizziness; rapid pulse; and weakness. First aid includes removing the victim from the heat, having them lie down with feet elevated, giving them cool water to drink, and observing them for signs of heat stroke.
Treatment For Heat Stroke During heat stroke, sweating ceases so the body cannot cool itself. The victim has a high body temperature and a rapid pulse and respiration rate. The skin becomes hot and dry. A victim feels weak, dizzy, and has a headache. They might become unconscious. Call ASAP and follow the following steps:
Treatment For Heat Stroke (cont.) Remove the victim from the heat. Remove superfluous clothing. Wrap the victim in cool, wet towels or sheets. Place ice packs near the neck, armpits, and groin. Continue cooling the victim until a body temperature of below 102 degrees is reached. Treat any other life-threatening emergencies.