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Skin Structure Figure 4.4.

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Presentation on theme: "Skin Structure Figure 4.4."— Presentation transcript:

1 Skin Structure Figure 4.4

2 Normal Skin Color Determinants
Melanin Yellow, brown, or black pigments Carotene Orange-yellow pigment from some vegetables Hemoglobin Red coloring from blood cells in dermal capillaries Oxygen content determines the extent of red coloring

3 Other things that effect skin color
Blushing Blanching (pale from anger, anemia, etc) Jaundice (excessive bile pigments from liver) Bruises – black eye, etc

4 Skin Appendages Cutaneous glands are all exocrine glands
Sebaceous glands Sweat glands Hair Hair follicles Nails

5 Appendages of the Skin Sebaceous glands
Produce sebum (oil and fragmented cells) Lubricant for skin Prevents brittle hair Kills bacteria Most have ducts that empty into hair follicles; others open directly onto skin surface Glands are activated at puberty

6 Appendages of the Skin Figure 4.6a

7 Appendages of the Skin Sweat glands (aka “sudoriferous” glands)
Produce sweat Widely distributed in skin (2.5 million!) Two types Eccrine – over 2.5 million on your body! Open via duct to pore on skin surface Apocrine Ducts empty into hair follicles Your axillary and genital regions

8 Appendages of the Skin Figure 4.6b

9 Sweat and Its Function Eccrine gland: Composition Mostly water
Salts and vitamin C Some metabolic waste Function Helps dissipate excess heat Excretes waste products Acidic nature inhibits bacteria growth

10 Apocrine gland: Sweat also containe Fatty acids and proteins (Bacteria love to eat it!)

11 Appendages of the Skin Hair Produced by hair follicle
Consists of hard keratinized epithelial cells Melanocytes provide pigment for hair color

12 Second Definition of MATRIX!!
We know it as the material created by connective tissue cells to fill up extracellular space. BUT It is also a term used to describe the “growth zone” of skin appendages.

13 Appendages of the Skin Figure 4.7c

14 Appendages of the Skin Hair anatomy Central medulla
Cortex surrounds medulla Cuticle on outside of cortex Most heavily keratinized Figure 4.7b

15 Appendages of the Skin Associated hair structures Hair follicle
Dermal and epidermal sheath surround hair root Arrector pili muscle Smooth muscle Pulls hairs upright when cold or frightened Sebaceous gland Sweat gland

16 Appendages of the Skin Figure 4.7a

17 Appendages of the Skin Figure 4.8

18 Appendages of the Skin Nails Scale-like modifications of the epidermis
Heavily keratinized Stratum basale extends beneath the nail bed Responsible for growth Lack of pigment makes them colorless

19 Appendages of the Skin Nail structures Free edge
Body is the visible attached portion Root of nail embedded in skin Cuticle is the proximal nail fold that projects onto the nail body

20 Appendages of the Skin Figure 4.9

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