Until 1800s – no clear system Elements grouped by similar properties or atomic mass The Search for a Periodic Table In 1829, J.W. Döbereiner classified some elements into groups of three, which he called triads.
Döbereiners Triads The elements in a triad had similar chemical properties, and their physical properties varied in an orderly way according to their atomic masses. ElementAtomic mass (g) Density (g/mL) Melting point (C) Boiling point (C) Chlorine35.50.00321-101-34 Bromine79.93.12-759 Iodine1274.93114185
Döbereiners Triads The concept of triads suggested that the properties of an element are related to its atomic mass. Density increases with increasing atomic mass. ElementAtomic mass (g) Density (g/mL) Melting point (C) Boiling point (C) Chlorine35.50.00321-101-34 Bromine79.93.12-759 Iodine1274.93114185
Which of the Dobereiner triads shown are still listed in the same column of the modern periodic table? Triad 1Triad 2Triad 3 LiMnS NaCrSe KFeTe Triad 1 and triad 3
The Russian chemist, Dmitri Mendeleev, developed a periodic table of elements. Mendeleevs Periodic Table organized the elements according to increasing atomic mass.
Mendeleev later developed an improved version of his table with the elements arranged in horizontal rows. Mendeleevs Periodic Table
Patterns of changing properties repeated for the elements across the horizontal rows. Elements in vertical columns have similar properties. Mendeleevs Periodic Table
properties of the elements repeat in an orderly way from row to row of the table. This repeated pattern is an example of periodicity in the properties of elements. Periodicity is the tendency to recur at regular intervals.
Mendeleevs Periodic Table ***Mendeleev correctly predicted the properties of several undiscovered elements. Why is this important? In order to group elements with similar properties in the same columns, Mendeleev had to leave some blank spaces in his table. He suggested that these spaces represented undiscovered elements.
The Modern Periodic Table The atomic number of an element is equal to the number of protons in the nucleus. Each row (except the first) begins with a metal and ends with a noble gas. the basis for ordering the elements in the table is the atomic number, not atomic mass.
The Modern Periodic Table In between, the properties of the elements change in an orderly progression from left to right. This regular cycle illustrates periodicity in the properties of the elements.
The Modern Periodic Table periodic law - physical and chemical properties of the elements repeat in a regular pattern when they are arranged in order of increasing atomic number
Use the periodic table to separate these 12 elements into 6 pairs fo elements having similair properties. Ca, K, Ga, P, Si, Rb, B, Sr, Sn, Cl, Bi, Br CaKGaPSiCl SrRbBBiSnBr
the halogens in Group 17 (VIIA) -from the Greek words for salt former, compounds that halogens form with metals are salt-like.
the noble gases in Group 18 (VIIIA) – full outer shell (8 valence electrons), generally unreactive
In the periodic table, two series of elements are placed below the main body of the table. The elements in these two series are known as the inner transition elements.
The first series of inner transition elements is called the lanthanides because they follow element number 57, lanthanum. Because of their natural abundance on Earth is less than 0.01 percent, the lanthanides are sometimes called the rare earth elements.
The second series of inner transition elements are the actinides All of the actinides are radioactive, and all beyond uranium (92) are man made (synthetic).
Elemental Funkiness –By Mark Rosengarten UF http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1PSzSTilu_s
The majority of the elements are metals (solids). They occupy the entire left side and center of the periodic table. Elements are classified as metals, metalloids, or nonmetals on the basis of their physical and chemical properties.
Nonmetals occupy the upper-right-hand corner. – green, yellow, orange Physical States and Classes of the Elements
Metalloids are located along the staircase boundary between metals and nonmetals. - purple Physical States and Classes of the Elements
Metals Metals are elements that have luster, conduct heat and electricity, and usually bend without breaking. Click box to view movie clip. All metals except mercury are solids at room temperature; in fact, most have extremely high melting points.
Metals The periodic table shows that most of the metals (coded blue) are not main group elements. With the exception of tin, lead, and bismuth, metals have one, two, or three valence electrons.
Nonmetals Most nonmetals dont conduct electricity, are much poorer conductors of heat than metals, and are brittle when solid. Many are gases at room temperature Their melting points tend to be lower than those of metals.
With the exception of carbon, nonmetals have five, six, seven, or eight valence electrons.
Metalloids Metalloids have some chemical and physical properties of metals and other properties of nonmetals. - purple In the periodic table, the metalloids lie along the border between metals and nonmetals.
some metalloids are semiconductors Silicons semiconducting properties made the computer revolution possible. A semiconductor is an element that does not conduct electricity as well as a metal, but does conduct slightly better than a nonmetal. Some metalloids such as silicon, germanium (Ge), and arsenic (As) are semiconductors.
Understanding the relationship between electron configuration and position in the periodic table enables you to predict the properties of the elements and the outcome of many chemical reactions. Periodic Properties of the Elements The electron structure of an atom determines many of its chemical and physical properties.
Atomic Size size of an atom INCREASES in any group as you go DOWN the column because the valence electrons are in energy levels farther from the nucleus.
shielding effect – electrons in energy levels closer to the nucleus shield the valance electrons from the positive pull of the nucleus
The shielding effect Increases down a group because electrons are being added to higher energy levels There is no shielding effect as you go across a period because electrons are being added to the same principal energy level
size of an atom DECREASES in any period as you go to the RIGHT in any row because there is an increased nuclear (+) charge pulling e- in tighter.
Why larger going down? –Higher energy levels have larger orbitals –Shielding - core e - block the attraction between the nucleus and the valence e - Why smaller to the right? –Increased nuclear charge without additional shielding pulls e - in tighter Atomic Radius
Which atom has the larger radius? yBe orBa yCa orBr Ba Ca Examples
For each of the following pairs, predict which atom is larger. a. Mg, Sr b. Sr, Sn c. Ge, Sn d. Ge, Br Sr Sn Ge e. Cr, W W
Octet Rule reactivity of atoms is based on achieving a complete octet of valence electrons(8/8) Everybody wants to be like a noble gas! Ne
Atoms achieve noble gas configuration by gaining or losing their valence electrons An ion is an atom or group of atoms that has a charge because of the loss or gain of electrons.
cation - An ion that has LOST an e- and now has a positive (+) charge anion – an ion that has GAINED an e- and now has a negative (-) charge
Common Ion Charges aka oxidation number 1+ 2+ 3+3-2- 1- 0
GROUP #: VALENCE # WHEN FORMING IONS: OUT OF 8: Group IA 1 loses 1 Group IIA 2 loses 2 Group IIIA 3 loses 3 Group IVA 4 can lose or gain Group VA 5 gains 3 Group VIA 6 gains 2 Group VIIA 7 gains 1 Group VIIIA 8 does not form ions
Ionic Size positive ions + (cations) acquire the configuration of the noble gas in the preceding period. the outermost electrons of the ion are in a lower energy level than the valence electrons of the neutral atom.
The electrons that are not lost by the atom experience a greater attraction to the nucleus and pull together in a tighter bundle with a smaller radius. all cations ions have smaller radii than their corresponding atoms.
anions acquire the electron configuration of the noble gas at the end of its period. But the nuclear charge doesnt increase with the number of electrons.
In the case of fluorine, a nuclear charge of 9+ must hold ten electrons in the F – ion; all the electrons are held less tightly the radius of the anion is larger than the neutral atom.
group trends (first) ionization energy decreases from top to bottom along a group reason: outermost electron is farther and farther from the nucleus in larger atoms, so it is more easily removed
periodic trends (first) ionization energy increases from left to right in a period reason: nuclear charge(+) increases; more attraction between electrons and protons
Successive Ionization Energies yMg1st I.E.736 kJ 2nd I.E.1,445 kJ Core e - 3rd I.E.7,730 kJ yLarge jump in I.E. occurs when a CORE e - is removed.
yAl1st I.E.577 kJ 2nd I.E.1,815 kJ 3rd I.E.2,740 kJ Core e - 4th I.E.11,600 kJ Successive Ionization Energies yLarge jump in I.E. occurs when a CORE e - is removed.
Which atom has the higher 1st I.E.? yNorBi yBa orNe N Ne Examples
a. Mg, Na b. S, O c. Ca, Ba d. Cl, I Mg O Ca Cl e. Na, Al Al f. Se, BrBr For each of the following pairs, predict which atom has the higher first ionization energy.
Periodic Trends in Electronegativity electronegativity tendency of an atom to attract electrons. noble gases do not have electronegativity values chemical bonds are determined by electronegativity differences between the bonding partners
electronegativity trends are not completely regular fluorine = most electronegative element with a value of 4.0 (smallest anion formed) cesium = least electronegative element (largest cation formed)
electronegativity decreases from top to bottom in a group
electronegativity increases from left to right in a period
Electrons in Atoms Niels Bohr. Electrons are arranged in orbits around the nucleus The energy level of an electron is the region around the nucleus where the electron is likely to be moving.
modern 3-D electron-cloud model - probability model Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle it is not possible to know both the exact position and velocity of an object simultaneously
Modern electron cloud model orbitals are areas of high probability (~95%) of finding electrons
Electrons can change energy level, by absorbing energy. When an electron absorbs a quantum of energy, it moves up to a higher energy level. When the electron falls from a higher energy level to a lower energy level, energy is released, and we see light
Energy levels have sublevels divisions within an energy levelsublevels 1) many similar energy states grouped together in a level 2) different shapes: spherical, dumbbell, cloverleaf
There are 4 sublevels s, p, d, f (s p d f stand for sharp, principal, diffuse, fundamental) maximum number of e- in a principal energy level = 2n 2 n = principal quantum number = electron energy level or shell (period) number n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
electron maximums in the sublevels s can hold 2 e- p can hold 6 e- d can hold 10 e- f can hold 14 e-
Electrons fill orbitals in a certain way electron configuration - a specific electron arrangement in orbitals
Electron configuration: General Rules Pauli Exclusion Principle –Each orbital can hold 2 electrons with opposite spins.
Aufbau Principle –Electrons fill the lowest energy orbitals first. –Lazy Tenant Rule
RIGHT WRONG Hunds Rule –Within a sublevel, place one e - per orbital before pairing them. –Empty Bus Seat Rule
Different sections of the periodic table correspond to the different sublevels Groups IA & IIA = s block Groups IIIA – VIIIA = p block Transition = d block Inner transition = f block
Diagonal rule -to help us remember the order in which energy level subshells fill - follow the arrows 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s 4p 4d 4f 5s 5p 5d 5f 6s 6p 6d 6f 7s 7p
O 8e - Orbital Diagram zElectron Configuration = 1 s 2 2s 2 2p 4 Example 1s 2 2s 2 2p 4
the sum of the superscripts = the atomic number of the element superscripts are NOT exponents (nothing is being squared, etc.) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 4
*** valence configurations will be s OR s and p ***
Condensed (Abbreviated) Electron Configurations use the previous Noble Gas as the starting point in brackets, then finish the configuration zShorthand Configuration S 16e - Valence Electrons Core Electrons S16e - [Ne] 3s 2 3p 4 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 4 Longhand Configuration