Presentation on theme: "Chapter 16 Political Parties"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 16 Political Parties Section 1Development of Parties
2Parties and Political Systems A political party is a group of people with broad common interests who organize to win elections and to control and influence governments and their policies.There are three types of party systems:
3Parties and Political Systems One-party system – the party, in effect, is the government. Usually found in authoritarian governments.Multiparty system – several political parties compete to control the government and must often form coalitions to do so.Two-party system – two major parties dominate the government.
4What problems do political parties face in a multiparty system? Discussion QuestionWhat problems do political parties face in a multiparty system?
5Growth of American Parties Although many of the Founders distrusted factions, by the end of President Washington’s second term, two political parties had all ready formed.
6Growth of American Parties The first political parties in the United States were the Federalists and Anti-federalists. Their leaders were John Adams and Thomas Jefferson, respectively.
7Growth of American Parties The Anti-federalists become the Democratic Republicans control the government through the 1820’s. In 1828, President Andrew Jackson re-aligned the party renaming it the Democratic Party.
8Growth of American Parties Ono the even of the Civil War, the Republican Party was born. After the war, it dominated the national scene with the Democrats as the minority party.
9Growth of American Parties During t he Great depression, the Democratic Party gained power and remained the majority party for most of the next 50 years.
10Growth of American Parties The Republican Party gained the presidency in 1968 with the election of Richard Nixon. Republicans would maintain control the White House through The only exceptions are from 1977 – 1981 when Jimmy Carter was president and from 1992 – 2000 when Bill Clinton and the Democrats had control of the White House.
11The Role of Minor Parties Third Parties have been part of the American political scene since the early years of the Republic.All third parties have on thing in common: They do not believe the two major parties are meeting certain national needs.
12The Role of Minor Parties In general, third parties fall into one of three categories:The single-issue partyThe ideological partyThe splinter partyOccasionally, third parties influenced the outcome of national elections by drawing enough votes to tip the balance to one of the majority parties.
13The Role of Minor Parties Third parties face three major obstacles:It is difficult for them to get on the ballot.Most voters support the major parties.Raising campaign funds is difficult.
14Discussion QuestionWhat are some of the reasons for and against voting for third party candidates?
15Chapter 16 Political Parties Section 2Party Organization
16Membership and Organization Both Republicans and Democrats are organized into 50 state parties and thousands of local parties, as well as a national party.Voters may become members of a party when they register to vote.Usually voters join the party whose ideas and candidates they support.
17Membership and Organization Party membership involves no duties or obligations beyond voting. Some members do, however, volunteer and/or give monetary donations.
18Membership and Organization The county level is the one in which the party is most united. However, counties are the weakest link in the parties organizational structure.The state central committee is the most important part of t he party in the state. It helps elect the parties candidates to state offices.
19Membership and Organization The national convention and the national committee are the two main parts of the party’s national organization.
20Membership and Organization The national party chairperson, elected by the national committee, manages the daily operations of the national party.
21Discussion QuestionWhat are some reason for becoming an active member of a political party?
22Political Party Functions Political parties recruit candidates to run for office. Both parties are candidate-oriented rather than issue-oriented.Political parties bring important issues to the attention of the public, and publish the party’s position on these issues.Personal attacks against the opposing candidates sometimes obscure the issues.
23Political Party Functions Parties dispense patronage in the form of jobs, contracts and appointments to government positions to loyal and contributing members.The party out of power assumes the role of political “watchdog” over the government.
24Political Party Functions Because parties need to draw support from many different and sometimes conflicting groups, parties encourage compromise and adopt moderate policies with mass appeal.
25Discussion QuestionDo political parties fulfill their commitment to educating the public about issues and platform topics?
26Chapter 16 Political Parties Section 3Nominating Candidates
27How Candidates are Selected Caucus – used very early in our nations history. Became unpopular because the people had no say. States that still use caucuses today must be open to all voters.
28How Candidates are Selected Direct primary – the method used by most parties today to nominate candidates. Two methods:Closed Primary – only party members are allowed to vote.Open Primary – and registered voter may participate.
29Do you favor open or closed primary elections? Explain why. Discussion QuestionDo you favor open or closed primary elections? Explain why.
30How Candidates are Selected Primary elections run according to state law and are held at regular polling places. These elections are used to select a parties candidate for offices such as governor, state senators, and other various state and local offices.
31How Candidates are Selected A person who wishes to run for an office can file a petition to be added to the ballot in the general election. However, the major parties has an advantage because of the backing of the party.What type of advantages does the endorsed party candidate receive?
32Presidential Nominations Every four years, each major party holds a nominating convention to choose candidates for president and vice president in the November general election.
33Presidential Nominations Prior to 1824, party leaders secretly chose who would be the candidate for President of the United States.Since 1832, a convention of party members has chosen the presidential candidates.Since the 1970’s primary elections have given all voters a say in choosing the parties ticket for president and vice president.
34Presidential Nominations Criticisms of presidential primaries include:The process extends over too long a period.Primaries focus on the image of a candidate, not the issues.Few people vote in primaries. Therefore, the winner may not be as popular as thought.Primaries often result in one-sided conventions that become media showcases.
35Discussion QuestionDo presidential primaries serve as a good way to narrow down the candidates for President of the United States?
36The National Convention Each party’s national committee chooses the site and date of the convention.Dem – Denver, CORep – Minneapolis/St. Paul, MNThe convention is held in the late summer, (Aug or Sept).
37The National Convention Many of the delegates who assemble at the convention are already pledged to a candidate, however some are not.
38The National Convention Each parties rules committee governs how the convention will be run.The credentials committee must approve the delegations from each state and territory.The platform committee is assigned the important task of writing the party’s platform – a statement of its principles, beliefs, and positions on vital issues.
39The National Convention On one of the evenings of the convention, usually the third evening, an important party member gives the keynote address. This is a speech intended to united the party for the coming campaign.
40The National Convention After the keynote address, the convention delegates vote for the vice presidential nominee.The VP nominee is chosen to balance the ticket, with a person who has a personal. Political, or geographic background different then the presidential candidate.
41The National Convention Once the VP candidate is formally chosen, he or she comes out and makes a speech to the delegates and the nation watching at home.
42The National Convention The highlight of the convention is the selection of the parties candidate for president. In recent years, the nominee has been determined because of committed delegates earned in the primary’s and caucuses. However, in 2008, the Democratic Presidential nominee was determined by super delegates.
43The National Convention Just like the VP nominating process, once the candidate is official, they will come on the stage and deliver their acceptance speech to the delegates and news media.
44Discussion QuestionSince primary elections usually narrow down the field to one candidate in each party, should the media continue to have gavel to gavel coverage or just broadcast the highlights?