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Chapter 16 Political Parties

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1 Chapter 16 Political Parties
Section 1 Development of Parties

2 Parties and Political Systems
A political party is a group of people with broad common interests who organize to win elections and to control and influence governments and their policies. There are three types of party systems:

3 Parties and Political Systems
One-party system – the party, in effect, is the government. Usually found in authoritarian governments. Multiparty system – several political parties compete to control the government and must often form coalitions to do so. Two-party system – two major parties dominate the government.

4 What problems do political parties face in a multiparty system?
Discussion Question What problems do political parties face in a multiparty system?

5 Growth of American Parties
Although many of the Founders distrusted factions, by the end of President Washington’s second term, two political parties had all ready formed.

6 Growth of American Parties
The first political parties in the United States were the Federalists and Anti-federalists. Their leaders were John Adams and Thomas Jefferson, respectively.

7 Growth of American Parties
The Anti-federalists become the Democratic Republicans control the government through the 1820’s. In 1828, President Andrew Jackson re-aligned the party renaming it the Democratic Party.

8 Growth of American Parties
Ono the even of the Civil War, the Republican Party was born. After the war, it dominated the national scene with the Democrats as the minority party.

9 Growth of American Parties
During t he Great depression, the Democratic Party gained power and remained the majority party for most of the next 50 years.

10 Growth of American Parties
The Republican Party gained the presidency in 1968 with the election of Richard Nixon. Republicans would maintain control the White House through The only exceptions are from 1977 – 1981 when Jimmy Carter was president and from 1992 – 2000 when Bill Clinton and the Democrats had control of the White House.

11 The Role of Minor Parties
Third Parties have been part of the American political scene since the early years of the Republic. All third parties have on thing in common: They do not believe the two major parties are meeting certain national needs.

12 The Role of Minor Parties
In general, third parties fall into one of three categories: The single-issue party The ideological party The splinter party Occasionally, third parties influenced the outcome of national elections by drawing enough votes to tip the balance to one of the majority parties.

13 The Role of Minor Parties
Third parties face three major obstacles: It is difficult for them to get on the ballot. Most voters support the major parties. Raising campaign funds is difficult.

14 Discussion Question What are some of the reasons for and against voting for third party candidates?

15 Chapter 16 Political Parties
Section 2 Party Organization

16 Membership and Organization
Both Republicans and Democrats are organized into 50 state parties and thousands of local parties, as well as a national party. Voters may become members of a party when they register to vote. Usually voters join the party whose ideas and candidates they support.

17 Membership and Organization
Party membership involves no duties or obligations beyond voting. Some members do, however, volunteer and/or give monetary donations.

18 Membership and Organization
The county level is the one in which the party is most united. However, counties are the weakest link in the parties organizational structure. The state central committee is the most important part of t he party in the state. It helps elect the parties candidates to state offices.

19 Membership and Organization
The national convention and the national committee are the two main parts of the party’s national organization.

20 Membership and Organization
The national party chairperson, elected by the national committee, manages the daily operations of the national party.

21 Discussion Question What are some reason for becoming an active member of a political party?

22 Political Party Functions
Political parties recruit candidates to run for office. Both parties are candidate-oriented rather than issue-oriented. Political parties bring important issues to the attention of the public, and publish the party’s position on these issues. Personal attacks against the opposing candidates sometimes obscure the issues.

23 Political Party Functions
Parties dispense patronage in the form of jobs, contracts and appointments to government positions to loyal and contributing members. The party out of power assumes the role of political “watchdog” over the government.

24 Political Party Functions
Because parties need to draw support from many different and sometimes conflicting groups, parties encourage compromise and adopt moderate policies with mass appeal.

25 Discussion Question Do political parties fulfill their commitment to educating the public about issues and platform topics?

26 Chapter 16 Political Parties
Section 3 Nominating Candidates

27 How Candidates are Selected
Caucus – used very early in our nations history. Became unpopular because the people had no say. States that still use caucuses today must be open to all voters.

28 How Candidates are Selected
Direct primary – the method used by most parties today to nominate candidates. Two methods: Closed Primary – only party members are allowed to vote. Open Primary – and registered voter may participate.

29 Do you favor open or closed primary elections? Explain why.
Discussion Question Do you favor open or closed primary elections? Explain why.

30 How Candidates are Selected
Primary elections run according to state law and are held at regular polling places. These elections are used to select a parties candidate for offices such as governor, state senators, and other various state and local offices.

31 How Candidates are Selected
A person who wishes to run for an office can file a petition to be added to the ballot in the general election. However, the major parties has an advantage because of the backing of the party. What type of advantages does the endorsed party candidate receive?

32 Presidential Nominations
Every four years, each major party holds a nominating convention to choose candidates for president and vice president in the November general election.

33 Presidential Nominations
Prior to 1824, party leaders secretly chose who would be the candidate for President of the United States. Since 1832, a convention of party members has chosen the presidential candidates. Since the 1970’s primary elections have given all voters a say in choosing the parties ticket for president and vice president.

34 Presidential Nominations
Criticisms of presidential primaries include: The process extends over too long a period. Primaries focus on the image of a candidate, not the issues. Few people vote in primaries. Therefore, the winner may not be as popular as thought. Primaries often result in one-sided conventions that become media showcases.

35 Discussion Question Do presidential primaries serve as a good way to narrow down the candidates for President of the United States?

36 The National Convention
Each party’s national committee chooses the site and date of the convention. Dem – Denver, CO Rep – Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN The convention is held in the late summer, (Aug or Sept).

37 The National Convention
Many of the delegates who assemble at the convention are already pledged to a candidate, however some are not.

38 The National Convention
Each parties rules committee governs how the convention will be run. The credentials committee must approve the delegations from each state and territory. The platform committee is assigned the important task of writing the party’s platform – a statement of its principles, beliefs, and positions on vital issues.

39 The National Convention
On one of the evenings of the convention, usually the third evening, an important party member gives the keynote address. This is a speech intended to united the party for the coming campaign.

40 The National Convention
After the keynote address, the convention delegates vote for the vice presidential nominee. The VP nominee is chosen to balance the ticket, with a person who has a personal. Political, or geographic background different then the presidential candidate.

41 The National Convention
Once the VP candidate is formally chosen, he or she comes out and makes a speech to the delegates and the nation watching at home.

42 The National Convention
The highlight of the convention is the selection of the parties candidate for president. In recent years, the nominee has been determined because of committed delegates earned in the primary’s and caucuses. However, in 2008, the Democratic Presidential nominee was determined by super delegates.

43 The National Convention
Just like the VP nominating process, once the candidate is official, they will come on the stage and deliver their acceptance speech to the delegates and news media.

44 Discussion Question Since primary elections usually narrow down the field to one candidate in each party, should the media continue to have gavel to gavel coverage or just broadcast the highlights?

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