Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 The Presidency"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 8 The Presidency Section 1President and Vice President
2Duties of the President Presidents have enormous power and responsibility in government.
3Duties of the President President’s make sure the national laws are fully executed.
4Duties of the President The president serves as commander in chief of the armed forces.
5Duties of the President The president meets with heads of foreign governments.
6Duties of the President The President also appoints top government officials, federal judges and ambassadors.
7Discussion QuestionCompare the president’s duties in foreign policy with his duties in domestic policy.
8President’s Term and Salary The 22nd Amendment limited presidents to two-terms.
9President’s Term and Salary Congress determines the president’s salary ($200,000 since 1969)The president also receives many benefits in and after being in office.
10Presidential Qualifications The Constitution sets several requirements for the president.Natural-born citizenAt least 35 years oldResident of the U.S. for 14 years.
11Presidential Qualifications Experience in government is an unwritten but IMPORTANT qualification!
12Presidential Qualifications Candidates must have access to sources for raising large amounts of money in the presidential election campaign.
13Presidential Qualifications Most presidents have shared similar backgrounds – ethnic, economic, racial, and gender.
14Presidential Qualifications Being president underscores personal strengths and weaknesses.
15Discussion QuestionWhat do you consider the most important qualification for the office of president? Explain!
16Presidential Succession The 25th Amendment established the order of succession to the presidency and spelled out what happens when the Vice Presidency is vacant.
17Presidential Succession The 25th Amendment also set forth rules to be followed if a president becomes disabled.
18The Vice President’s Role The vice president’s work depends on what jobs, if any the president assigns.
19The Vice President’s Role Although presidents before Eisenhower generally ignored their VP’s, presidents since then have tried to give their VP’s more responsibility.
20Discussion QuestionWhy have recent presidents tried to give their vice presidents more responsibility?
21Chapter 8 The Presidency Section 2Electing the President
22The Original SystemArticle II, Section 1, of the Constitution provided that the candidate receiving the majority of the electoral votes became president.
23The Original SystemThe candidate with the second-highest number of votes became vice president.
24The Impact of Political Parties The election of 1800 was decided by the House of Representatives.
25The Impact of Political Parties To prevent a tie vote for president in the Electoral College, the 12th Amendment added in 1804 requires separate ballots for president and vice president.
26The Electoral College System Today The Electoral College is still used today.The Electoral College votes in December.
27The Electoral College System Today The College uses a winner-takes-all system.All of the states’ (except Maine and Nebraska) electoral votes go to the candidate receiving the largest popular vote.
28The Electoral College System Today The number of electoral votes per state is determined by the number of seats a state has in the House and Senate combined. The minimum a state can have is 3 electoral votes.
29Electoral College Issues Critics say that the Electoral College’s winner-take-all system is unfair.
30Electoral College Issues The Electoral College system also makes it possible for a candidate who loses the total popular vote to win the electoral vote.
31Electoral College Issues Other critics believe the Electoral College should be replaced with direct election of the president and vice president like any other election.
32Discussion QuestionDo you agree or disagree with critics who argue that the Electoral College system should be abolished? Explain!
33The InaugurationThe new president is sworn into office in an inauguration ceremony.All leading officials from the three branches of government attend the January ceremony.
35Selection of the Cabinet The president must consider whether potential cabinet members’ backgrounds suit their cabinet posts.
36Selection of the Cabinet A member should bring geographical balance to the cabinet, have high level administration skills, and satisfy interest groups.
37Selection of the Cabinet The cabinet should include minorities and women as well.
38Selection of the Cabinet Cabinet members today usually are college graduates and leaders in various professional fields.
39Selection of the Cabinet The Senate must approve cabinet appointees.
40The Role of the CabinetCabinet members are heads of the executive departments.The cabinet’s role is determined by the president.
41The Role of the CabinetModern presidents usually have not depended on the cabinet for advice in decision-making but have turned to White House staff and close friends as their advisors.
42The Role of the CabinetCertain cabinet members – the secretaries of state defense, and treasury plus the attorney general – form the “inner cabinet.”
43Factors Limiting the Cabinet’s Role The president does not command the full loyalty of cabinet members, even though he appoints them.
44Factors Limiting the Cabinet’s Role Cabinet members are pressured by career officials in their departments, interest groups, and members of Congress.
45Factors Limiting the Cabinet’s Role With 14 cabinet members, it is difficult to maintain secrecy in matters the president considers sensitive.
46Factors Limiting the Cabinet’s Role The president may not know and trust all the members of the cabinet because the president must weigh so many factors in appointing them.
47Discussion QuestionDo you think the president should appoint to cabinet positions people he knows and trusts or relative strangers who have specialized expertise? Explain!
48Chapter 8 The Presidency Section 4The Executive Offices
49Executive Office Agencies The Executive Office of the President (EOP) was created in 1939 by Congress.
50Executive Office Agencies The EOP has grown rapidly for three reasons:Presidents keep adding new agencies to itPresidents want experts nearby to advise them about issuesHuge federal programs require agencies to coordinate efforts of the executive departments and agencies in working together.
51Executive Office Agencies The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is the largest agency in the EOP and prepares the national budget that the president submits to Congress each year.
52Executive Office Agencies The National Security Council advises the president and helps coordinate the nation’s military and foreign policy.
53Executive Office Agencies The Council of Economic advisors helps the president formulate the nation’s economic policy.
54Executive Office Agencies Presidents add and sometimes eliminate agencies to the EOP to help carry out policy.
55The White House OfficeThe president appoints White House staff without Senate confirmation.The White House Office, or West Wing, is the most important part of the EOP.
56The White House OfficeThe White House staff perform whatever duties the president assigns them:
57The White House OfficeGathering information and providing advice on key issuesEnsuring that executive departments and agencies carry out key directives from the president.
58The White House Office3. Presenting the president’s views to the outside world.4. Deciding who and what information gets through to the president.