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Chapter 8 The Presidency Section 1 President and Vice President.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 The Presidency Section 1 President and Vice President."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 8 The Presidency Section 1 President and Vice President

2 Duties of the President Presidents have enormous power and responsibility in government.

3 Duties of the President Presidents make sure the national laws are fully executed.

4 Duties of the President The president serves as commander in chief of the armed forces.

5 Duties of the President The president meets with heads of foreign governments.

6 Duties of the President The President also appoints top government officials, federal judges and ambassadors.

7 Discussion Question Compare the presidents duties in foreign policy with his duties in domestic policy.

8 Presidents Term and Salary The 22 nd Amendment limited presidents to two- terms.

9 Presidents Term and Salary Congress determines the presidents salary ($200,000 since 1969) The president also receives many benefits in and after being in office.

10 Presidential Qualifications The Constitution sets several requirements for the president. 1.Natural-born citizen 2.At least 35 years old 3.Resident of the U.S. for 14 years.

11 Experience in government is an unwritten but IMPORTANT qualification! Presidential Qualifications

12 Candidates must have access to sources for raising large amounts of money in the presidential election campaign. Presidential Qualifications

13 Most presidents have shared similar backgrounds – ethnic, economic, racial, and gender. Presidential Qualifications

14 Being president underscores personal strengths and weaknesses.

15 Discussion Question What do you consider the most important qualification for the office of president? Explain!

16 Presidential Succession The 25 th Amendment established the order of succession to the presidency and spelled out what happens when the Vice Presidency is vacant.

17 Presidential Succession The 25 th Amendment also set forth rules to be followed if a president becomes disabled.

18 The Vice Presidents Role The vice presidents work depends on what jobs, if any the president assigns.

19 The Vice Presidents Role Although presidents before Eisenhower generally ignored their VPs, presidents since then have tried to give their VPs more responsibility.

20 Discussion Question Why have recent presidents tried to give their vice presidents more responsibility?

21 Chapter 8 The Presidency Section 2 Electing the President

22 The Original System Article II, Section 1, of the Constitution provided that the candidate receiving the majority of the electoral votes became president.

23 The Original System The candidate with the second-highest number of votes became vice president.

24 The Impact of Political Parties The election of 1800 was decided by the House of Representatives.

25 The Impact of Political Parties To prevent a tie vote for president in the Electoral College, the 12 th Amendment added in 1804 requires separate ballots for president and vice president.

26 The Electoral College System Today The Electoral College is still used today. The Electoral College votes in December.

27 The Electoral College System Today The College uses a winner- takes-all system. All of the states (except Maine and Nebraska) electoral votes go to the candidate receiving the largest popular vote.

28 The Electoral College System Today The number of electoral votes per state is determined by the number of seats a state has in the House and Senate combined. The minimum a state can have is 3 electoral votes.

29 Electoral College Issues Critics say that the Electoral Colleges winner-take-all system is unfair.

30 Electoral College Issues The Electoral College system also makes it possible for a candidate who loses the total popular vote to win the electoral vote.

31 Electoral College Issues Other critics believe the Electoral College should be replaced with direct election of the president and vice president like any other election.

32 Discussion Question Do you agree or disagree with critics who argue that the Electoral College system should be abolished? Explain!

33 The Inauguration The new president is sworn into office in an inauguration ceremony. All leading officials from the three branches of government attend the January ceremony.

34 Chapter 8 The Presidency Section 3 The Cabinet

35 Selection of the Cabinet The president must consider whether potential cabinet members backgrounds suit their cabinet posts.

36 Selection of the Cabinet A member should bring geographical balance to the cabinet, have high level administration skills, and satisfy interest groups.

37 Selection of the Cabinet The cabinet should include minorities and women as well.

38 Selection of the Cabinet Cabinet members today usually are college graduates and leaders in various professional fields.

39 Selection of the Cabinet The Senate must approve cabinet appointees.

40 The Role of the Cabinet Cabinet members are heads of the executive departments. The cabinets role is determined by the president.

41 The Role of the Cabinet Modern presidents usually have not depended on the cabinet for advice in decision-making but have turned to White House staff and close friends as their advisors.

42 The Role of the Cabinet Certain cabinet members – the secretaries of state defense, and treasury plus the attorney general – form the inner cabinet.

43 Factors Limiting the Cabinets Role The president does not command the full loyalty of cabinet members, even though he appoints them.

44 Factors Limiting the Cabinets Role Cabinet members are pressured by career officials in their departments, interest groups, and members of Congress.

45 Factors Limiting the Cabinets Role With 14 cabinet members, it is difficult to maintain secrecy in matters the president considers sensitive.

46 Factors Limiting the Cabinets Role The president may not know and trust all the members of the cabinet because the president must weigh so many factors in appointing them.

47 Discussion Question Do you think the president should appoint to cabinet positions people he knows and trusts or relative strangers who have specialized expertise? Explain!

48 Chapter 8 The Presidency Section 4 The Executive Offices

49 Executive Office Agencies The Executive Office of the President (EOP) was created in 1939 by Congress.

50 Executive Office Agencies The EOP has grown rapidly for three reasons: 1.Presidents keep adding new agencies to it 2.Presidents want experts nearby to advise them about issues 3.Huge federal programs require agencies to coordinate efforts of the executive departments and agencies in working together.

51 Executive Office Agencies The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is the largest agency in the EOP and prepares the national budget that the president submits to Congress each year.

52 Executive Office Agencies The National Security Council advises the president and helps coordinate the nations military and foreign policy.

53 Executive Office Agencies The Council of Economic advisors helps the president formulate the nations economic policy.

54 Executive Office Agencies Presidents add and sometimes eliminate agencies to the EOP to help carry out policy.

55 The White House Office The president appoints White House staff without Senate confirmation. The White House Office, or West Wing, is the most important part of the EOP.

56 The White House Office The White House staff perform whatever duties the president assigns them:

57 The White House Office 1.Gathering information and providing advice on key issues 2.Ensuring that executive departments and agencies carry out key directives from the president.

58 The White House Office 3.Presenting the presidents views to the outside world. 4.Deciding who and what information gets through to the president.


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