Presentation on theme: "Chapter 15 Pages 306 - 327. Social norms refers to social expectations that guide people’s behaviour. Can be “prescriptive” (tell us what to do) or."— Presentation transcript:
Social norms refers to social expectations that guide people’s behaviour. Can be “prescriptive” (tell us what to do) or “proscriptive” (tell us what not to do) There are three levels of social norms. Folkways – informal practices based on tradition or accepted group behaviours. Mores – norms involving moral or ethical judgements. Laws – formal rules enforced by designated individuals within a society. May or may not be written down.
Conformity is behaviour that follows established practices. The degree to which we conform is based on the situation and the importance of the norm. Freedom of expression and thought is necessary to society and individuals but at the same time society requires us to conform to a certain degree.
Deviance - behaviour that differs from the social norms of the group and is judged as wrong by members of the group, harmful behaviour. What is seen as deviant can change over time and depending on the situation. Diversity – acceptable range of thoughts and behaviours within society.
In the past it was believe that evil spirits inhabited a person and this was the cause of the deviant behaviour. There are three modern theories that now explain deviance.
Some scientists believe that deviance can be explained by brain function or genetics.
Psychoanalysts suggest criminals cannot control their aggression while behaviour psychologist argue that as children criminals learned to behave certain ways and were rewarded for their deviant behaviour. Psychological and personality problems can explain some deviant behaviour.
Most sociologist see deviance as learn responses to the environment. Motivational – some people are encouraged to achieve but do not have the means or tools to achieve so rely on deviant behaviour to reach their goals. Learning – learn deviant behaviour from friends, family and co-workers.
Control – people display deviant behaviour if they experience an absence of social control and if the rewards for such behaviour are more certain than the punishments. Emphasizes the importance of socialization of children and self control. Labelling – the effect of automatically defining people in a particular way. People will start to live up to the labels they are given.
Page 309 # 1, 2, 3 Page 313 # 1, 2, 4 on your own, 5, 6
The methods used by society to ensure conformity to social norms. Three main forms of social control.
Happen every day through our interaction with others and self-control What would others think?
Laws, rules and regulations. Written down and enforced. Criminal and Civil Laws. Diagram on page 315 illustrates the types of social control that are used for varying degrees of deviant behaviour.
Society’s formal response to crime. There are three major elements: Police Judicial System Penal System
Maintains public order by enforcing the law; the police are mandated to recognize and apprehend criminals. Obviously the police cannot oversee all activities without abusing liberty; however, they often focus upon key issues that are of primary concern to society
Based upon the idea of innocence until guilt is proven and the ability of the accused to confront his/her accusers. The system incorporates legal rights and the prosecution represents the monarchy (crown). Trials can involve a judge & jury or a judge alone. Canada has not incorporated capital punishment (death sentence) since 1976. The USA is the only industrialized Western nation to retain capital punishment. Current issues within the judicial system involve profiling, wrongful conviction/scientific advances.
Reserved for those convicted of an offence. It is based upon the following notions: Retribution (eye for an eye) Protection & deterrence (prevent further crimes) Rehabilitation (education, therapy, support) Punishment can range from suspended sentences to imprisonment based upon severity.
Young Offenders Act (revised in 1999): http://www.cbc.ca/canada/story/1999/03/11/yoa990311.html Children under 12 cannot be brought to trial. Ages 12 – 17 can be brought to trial but only. given a max penalty of 5 years. Imprisonment is seen as the last resort. Youth are thought to bear less responsibility for their actions because they do not have the experience or knowledge of adults. Records are NOT erased at age 18. Is youth crime on the rise? See page 322
Prisons were built not only as a way to punish, discipline and rehabilitate criminals, but as a way to remove dangerous offenders from society.
Some critics think they are expensive, ineffective and inefficient. By depriving inmates of their liberties prisons do succeed to a certain extent but the recidivism (rate at which prisoners reoffend and return to prison) can be as high as 80%.
Aboriginal groups use healing circles (page 318), a focus on rehabilitation and healing for both victim and offender. Fines for minor offences and traffic violations. Community service Probation
Read the case study and answer the three questions listed on page 325